In an attempt to maintain adequate energy stores, mammals increase energy expenditure during periods of abundance. In rodents, it is known that leptin increases energy expenditure through the induction of the mitochondrial uncoupling pro-tein-1 (UCP-1) and the newly identified mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) through the sympathetic nervous system  in both white and brown adipose tissue .
Increasing evidence from human studies suggests that leptin predominantly influences the human energy balance through appetite changes, but it appears not to be involved in regulating energy expenditure . None of the expected factors, such as resting metabolic rate, total diurnal energy expenditure or dietary-induced thermogenesis, was related to blood leptin concentrations .
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