Height and Body Weight

Unclothed measurements must be taken using an anthropometer and weight scales. Body weight is the most obvious index of nutritional status, but, taken alone, it is not an accurate measurement. Actual body weight must be compared with ideal body weight (IBW) and other anthropometric parameters. For example, patients with ascites and/or oedema may have a normal body weight but severe malnutrition. Several approaches are used for estimating the IBW. One simple method consists of measuring body height and wrist circumference as an index of bone structure. The subject is allocated to one of three groups (short-limbed, normal-limbed or long-limbed), and the ideal body weight (Y) is estimated as reported in Table 10a.

Other approaches suggest different methods for the calculation of IBW, for example: 1. IBW = height (cm) - 100 ± 10% for males; IBW

Table 9. Reference values of main biochemical tests used in the study of nutritional status

Test

Unit of measure

Normal range

Haemoglobin

g/dl

14-18

Haematocrit

%

40-54

Red blood cells

millions/mm3

4.5-6

White blood cells

thousands/mm3

4.5-8

Lymphocytes

%

25-35

Iron

^g/dl

75-175

Sodium

mEq/l

135-145

Magnesium

mEq/l

1.5-2.3

Potassium

mEq/l

3.5-5.0

Phosphates

mg/dl

2.5-4.5

Chlorine

mEq/l

98-110

Calcium

mg/dl

8.5-10

Glucose

mg/dl

65-110

Total cholesterol

mg/dl

150-250

Esterified cholesterol

%

60-80

Free cholesterol

%

20-40

HDL cholesterol (M)

mg/dl

45

HDL cholesterol (F)

mg/dl

55

Total proteins

g/dl

6-8

Total bilirubin

mg/dl

0.1-1.1

Aspartate aminotransferase

U/l

7-40

Alanine aminotransferase

U/l

10-45

Alkaline phosphatase

U/l

30-115

Blood urea nitrogen

mg/dl

7-23

Uric acid

mg/dl

2.3-7

Total lipids

mg/dl

400-900

Triglycerides

mg/dl

36-165

Betalipoproteins

mg/dl

360-740

Phosphatides

mg/dl

150-250

Non-esterified fatty acids

mEq%ml

0.09-0.06

Lipoproteins

%

6-12

Pre-alpha-lipoproteins (VHDL)

%

22-32

Alpha-lipoproteins (HDL)

%

16-24

Pre-beta-lipoproteins (VLDL)

%

37-51

Chylomicrons

%

0-2

Alpha/beta ratio

%

12-25

2. IBW = (height - 150) x 0.75 + 50 for males; IBW = (height - 150) x 0.60 + 50 for females

3. IBW = height - 100 - (height - 150)/4 for males; IBW = height - 100 - (height - 150)/2 for females.

An adaptation of the above methods takes into account the subject's age, without gender difference:

1. IBW = 50 + [3 (height - 150)/4] + [(age - 20)/4]

Table 10b shows IBW values according to height and bone structure.

Table 10a. Estimating ideal body weight by anthropometry

Short-limbed Normal-limbed Long-limbed

Male

Y = 75 X - 58.5 Y = 75 X -

63.5

Y

= 75 X -

69

Female

Y = 68 X - 51.5 Y = 68 X -

58

Y

= 68 X -

61

Short limbed

Male with wrist circumference > 20 cm Female with wrist circumference > 18 cm

Normal limbed

Male with wrist circumference 16-20 cm Female with wrist circumference 14-18 cm

Long limbed

Male with wrist circumference < 16 cm Female with wrist circumference < 14 cm

Y, ideal weight; X, height (metres)

Y, ideal weight; X, height (metres)

Table 10b. Ideal weight (kg) and bone size with respect to skeletal structure

Male

Height

(cm)

Skeletal structure

Female Height (cm)

Skeletal structure

Light

Middle

Heavy

Light

Middle

Heavy

164

54.3-57.9

57.0-62.5

60.2-68.2

152

43.4-47.0

45.6-51.0

49.2-56.5

166

55.4-59.2

58.1-63.7

61.7-69,6

154

44.4-48.0

46.7-52.1

50.3-57.6

168

56.5-60.6

59.2-65.1

62.9-71.1

156

45.4-49.1

47.7-53.2

513-58.6

170

57.9-62.0

60.7-66.6

64.3-72.9

158

46.5-50.2

48.8-54.3

52.4-59.7

172

59.4-63.4

62.1-68.3

66.0-74.7

160

47.6-51.2

49.9-55.3

53.5-60.8

174

60.8-64.9

63.5-69.9

67.6-76.2

162

48.7-52.3

51.0-56.8

54.6-612

176

62.2-66.4

64.9-71.3

69.0-77.6

164

49.8-53.4

52.0-58.2

55.9-63.7

178

63.6-68.2

66.4-72.8

70.4-79.1

166

50.8-54.6

53.3-59.8

57.3-65.1

180

65.1-69.6

67.8-74.5

71.9-80.9

168

52.0-56.0

54.7-61.5

58.8-66.5

182

66.5-71.0

69.2-76.3

73.6-82.7

170

53.4-57.5

56.1-62.9

60.2-67.9

184

67.9-72.5

70.7-78.1

75.2-84.3

172

54.8-58.9

57.5-64.3

61.6-69.3

186

69.4-74.0

72.1-79.9

76.7-86.2

174

56.3-60.3

59.0-65.8

63.1-70.8

188

70.8-75.8

73.5-81.7

78.5-88.0

176

57.7-61.9

60.4-67.2

64.5-72.3

190

72.2-77.2

75.3-83.5

80.3-89.8

178

59.1-63.6

61.8-68.6

65.9-74.1

192

73.6-78.6

77.1-85.3

81.8-91.6

180

60.5-65.1

63.3-70.1

67.3-75.9

194

75.1-80.1

78.9-87.0

83.2-93.4

182

62.0-66.5

64.7-71.5

68.8-77.7

184

63.4-67.9

61.1-72.9

70.2-79.5

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