Best Effective Home Remedy For Vitiligo
Gauthier Y, Cario Andre M, Taieb A. A critical appraisal of vitiligo etiologic theories. Is melanocyte loss a melanocytorrhagy Pigment Cell Res 2003 16(4) 322-332. 3. Hann SK, Park YK, Lee KG, Choi EH, Im S. Epidermal changes in active vitiligo. J Dermatol 1992 19 217-222.
A bruise is an escape of blood into the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or both, after the rupture of blood vessels by the application of blunt force (14). The initial color of the bruise is the product of the child's natural skin pigmentation, the color of the pigments in the extravasated blood, and any color added by the inflammatory reaction. The color of the bruise changes as the extracellular hemoglobin breaks down into various pigments (15). Factors affecting the appearance of a bruise include (16)
AIH is detected with a mean annual incidence of 1.9 in 100000 patients 11 . When patients and their first-degree relatives were investigated, 30-40 of them were found to be affected by other autoimmune diseases. The most prevalent concurrent autoimmune diseases were autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease, ulcerative colitis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and vitiligo 12 . This finding indicates that patients with AIH and their first-degree relatives share a genetic predisposition for autoimmune diseases. To date, we know of several factors, such as specific human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which increase the risk of developing AIH. However, these risk factors cannot account for all patients with AIH and other pathogenic causes must be postulated. Most likely to be involved are other susceptibility genes regulating the immune responses and or the establishment and maintenance of tolerance. A model gene for such factors is the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Defects in...
T cells reactive with normal self-constituents or tumor-associated antigens are present in the peripheral blood of normal individuals. For example, peripheral blood CD4+ T cells show in vitro proliferative responses to self-antigens such as human heat shock protein-60 (hHSP60) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) when CD25+CD4+ TR cells are removed before culture (Taams et al. 2002 Wing et al. 2003). Direct visualization of self-reactive T cells in healthy individuals was achieved by using class II tetramers loaded with the diabetes-associated antigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65, the vitiligo and melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase, or the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 (Danke et al. 2004). Following removal of CD25+CD4+ TR cells and stimulation with antigens, tetramer positive T cells became easily detected in vitro. T cells specific for tumor-associated antigens, most of which are normal self-constituents, can also be detected in the peripheral blood, within...
The concept of using an immunostimulating antibody and a procedure of immunization is not unique to anti-CD137 mAb. In the preclinical development of anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies, it became apparent that there was synergy of anti-CTLA-4 mAb with vaccination (Hurwitz et al., 1998), that even could lead to autoimmunity by breaking tolerance (i.e., vitiligo) (Phan et al., 2003). Clinical trials with a humanized anti-CTLA-4 mAb have only been conducted in combination with vaccination strategies such as GM-CSF transfected allogenic tumor cells (Hodi etal., 2003) and peptides (Phan etal., 2003). The overall concept of vaccination plus an immunostimulating monoclonal antibody could become very important for clinical translation (Murillo et al., 2003).
This 23-yr-old man was referred to our Endocrinology Clinic for the management of adrenal insufficiency. The patient was born of a full-term uncomplicated delivery, and grew up normally in early childhood. At 6 yr of age, he became ill, stopped growing, and developed increased pigmentation of the skin. He was evaluated at a local hospital in Mexico and diagnosed as having adrenal insufficiency. After initiation of glucocorticoid replacement therapy with 5 mg prednisone daily, his condition improved and growth resumed, but the increased skin pigmentation persisted.
Halo nevi are common nevi exhibiting a peripheral vitiligo-like annulus or halo of hypopigmentation or depigmentation surrounding a central nevus (Fig. 4A). Histologically halo nevi demonstrate a dense lymphocytic infiltrate associated with the central nevus and a peripheral zone of hypo- to depigmentation of the epidermis, corresponding to the clinical halo (Fig. 4B). Halo melanocytic nevi may exhibit both clinically and histologically atypical features and thus raise concern for melanoma (Tables 4 and 7).
Primary adrenal insufficiency, or Addison's disease, may present with muscle pain, spasm or, on occasion, knee contractures. It can be associated with increased skin pigmentation on examination, low blood pressure, orthostatic hypotension, weakness, and cachexia. Laboratory testing can demonstrate abnormalities of the electrolytes and an increased serum ACTH.
Immune-mediated diabetes, previously referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes, type I diabetes, and juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for 5-10 of all cases of diabetes. Immune-mediated diabetes typically develops in childhood and adolescence, but has a variable age of onset ranging from infancy to the eighth and ninth decades of life. Abnormalities in glucose homeostasis result from severe insulin deficiency due to cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation (insulitis) and subsequent destruction of the b-cells of the pancreas. In T1DM, daily exogenous insulin administration is a life-sustaining intervention, and the absence of insulin can result in a state of acute metabolic decompensation known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Individuals with T1DM are at increased risk for other autoimmune disorders such as Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, vitiligo, celiac sprue, autoimmune hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, and pernicious anemia.
POMC knockout mice show obese and hyper-phagic phenotype and suffer from adrenal hypoplasia and altered skin pigmentation 18 . In this experimental model, chronic daily administration of a-MSH reverses these effects and determines a prompt weight decrease 19 . Similarly, the intranasal chronic administration of a synthetic a-MSH fragment (MSH ACTH4-10) causes a mild but persistent decrease in body fat in humans 20 .
A wide variety of infective agents have been shown to cause posterior uveitis on rare occasions. The leprosy bacillus and the coxsackie group of viruses are two examples chosen from many. Sympathetic ophthalmia has already been mentioned as a specific form of uveitis following injury. An especially rare but intriguing form of uveitis is known as the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, in which is seen the combination of vitiligo, poliosis, meningo-encephalitis, uveitis and exudative retinal detachments.