Homemade Skin Care Recipes
The C. botulinum toxin is a poisonous bacterium (a one-celled living thing that sometimes causes disease). It can cause paralysis and death when eaten in contaminated food. However, C. botuli-num can also heal people when used in a purified form by controlling muscle contractions. The bacteria and spores (forms of the bacteria that can grow into new bacteria) of C. botulinum are found in soils of farmlands and forests and sediments of streams, lakes, and coastal waters. The spores are also found on fruits and vegetables and in shellfish. The bacteria and spores cannot hurt humans. It is when they grow that the toxin is produced, which is the substance that harms people. There are seven varieties of C. botulinum, designated by the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Types A, B, E, and F cause human botulism, while types C and D cause animal botulism. Type G is found in soil primarily in Argentina but has not yet caused botulism.
Neurologic manifestations Botulinum tox-inbw, OP pesticides , thallium, scombrotoxin, ciguatoxin, tetrodotoxin, brevitoxin, saxitoxin, domoic acid, mushroom toxins, post-Campylo-bacter Guillain-Barre syndrome. Systemic illness Listeria monocytogenes, Brucella spp.bw Trichinella spiralis, Toxoplasma gondii, Vibrio vulnificus, hepatitis A virus.
In a hydrated connective tissue such as skin, DS chains probably do not bind directly to one another, rather they are far more likely to exert a strong mutual repulsion as a consequence of their high density of negative charges. This does not, of course, preclude a role for decorin in connective tissue organization based on its physical and chemical properties. In the decorin null mouse, collagen fibrils are irregular in outline and form anastomoses and random fusions (50). Thus, the decorin that is normally present appears to define and delimit the surfaces of the collagen fibrils. The parallel orientation and association of collagen fibrils into fibers and fiber-bundles is impaired in the periodontal ligament of decorin deficient mice (51) and in postburn hypertrophic scars (52) (Fig. 5). The latter are deficient in decorin compared to normal skin or mature scars (9). Skin collagen defects are also seen in variant forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, where mutations in a...
There is a lack of evidence for efficacy for these injections 18 . Two case reports concerning significant complications of these techniques have appeared recently documenting extensive abscess formation involving the entire paravertebral musculature descending to the level of the mid thighs after repeated paravertebral injection of local anesthetics, corticosteroid and botulinum toxin 25 and spinal abscesses and meningitis 1 . Reports of such adverse outcomes are rare however, there are no available systematic data to show how often such adverse effects occur.
There are abnormalities in the amounts and nature of the GAGs in hypertrophic scars, which has been recognized for more than 30 years. Chondroitin 4 sulfate, which is barely detectable in normal skin, can be readily demonstrated in hypertrophic scars (98), where it is especially elevated in the characteristic nodular structures (99). DS, in contrast, is absent from all but the more normal appearing parallel-fibered areas of the scars (100). Swann et al. (101) later extracted proteoglycans from human skin and normal and hypertrophic scars with the powerful denaturing agent guanidinium chloride (to disrupt the collagen), and separated and studied them using techniques that had earlier been successfully applied to the proteoglycans of cartilage. The major conclusions were that the hypertrophic scars contained more proteoglycan than did normal scars and that this included a higher proportion of low-density DS pro-teoglycan. Subsequent work identified in these extracts a small DS...
Garg et al. (103) isolated L-iduronate-containing small proteoglycans from skin and postburn scar tissues. Although the two small proteoglycans were not separated, evidence was presented for an increased ratio of biglycan to decorin in the scar tissues compared to normal skin. In our own work, the absolute amounts of decorin, biglycan, and versican in human skin and in postburn hypertrophic and mature scars were measured using quantitative inhibition ELISA methods (9). The amounts of decorin in the hypertrophic scars were found to be about 25 of those in normal skin or in mature scars, while biglycan and versican were each about sixfold higher. The longer DS chains previously noted were found to belong to both decorin and biglycan.
Data from Clark RA, B Chong, N Mirchandani, NK Brinster, K Yamanaka, RK Dowkiert, and TS Kupper. The vast majority of CLA+ T cells are resident in normal skin. Journal of Immunology 176 4431-4439, 2006 Ganusov AA and De Boer RJ. Do most lymphocytes in humans really reside in the gut Trends in Immunology 28 514-518, 2007.
When a single tic or a few tics are refractory and impairing, the injection of botulinum toxin into the specific muscle group can be helpful. This strategy is most useful for painful, dystonic tics. Treatment has a long duration of action, but the effect does decrease in 2 to 4 months, and repeated injections may be necessary. Specific side effects are few, other than weakness in the affected muscle. Some individuals reported the loss of the premonitory sensation with their botulinum toxin treatment. For the mental health clinician it is essential to work with a neurologist experienced in using botulinum toxin.
When cells undergo mitosis, two processes take place the division of the membrane and cytosol, and the regulated segregation of the centrosomes (spindle pole bodies) and the chromosomes (Fig. 4). These two components are essential for cell survival. Suppression of aurora and Ipll-like midbody-associated protein (AIM-1) kinase activity by dominant negative AIM-1 disrupts cleavage furrow formation without affecting nuclear division and without cytokinesis and subsequent cell death, suggesting that AIM-1 is required for the proper progression of cytokinesis in mammalian cells (222). The Rho family of small GTPases consists of Rho A, Rac, and Cdc42, and regulates many molecular switches of diverse biological function, including remodeling of cytoplasmic actin and microtubules (223). The small GTPase Rho localizes in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis (223,225). In Xenopus eggs, microinjection of either the Rho-specific inhibitor C3, an exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum, or a...
The aging of skin provides an important model for biological gerontology. The connective tissue of the dermis is readily accessible for studies from individuals of all ages. Generally a small punch biopsy is sufficient to supply cultures of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or sections for histology. Such studies demonstrate pronounced changes in histology with age, alterations that share many features with similar changes occurring in other tissues in the body.2 These observations suggest that the study of aging skin could yield important clues to the pathogenesis of other age-related connective tissue disorders, and perhaps, aging in general. Skin, however, is unique it its exposure to relatively high levels of ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, a distinction is usually drawn between those changes in the skin attributed to long-term exposure to solar radiation (actinic skin damage) and those independent of such extrinsic causes (intrinsic skin aging). Much of this discussion will focus on...
Malignant melanomas may arise de novo, that is, in apparently normal skin or in association with a pre-existing melanocytic nevus. When malignant melanomas arise de novo, they begin as a small, lightly pigmented macule that in time is characterized by asymmetry, scalloped borders, poor circumscription, and variations in color of predominantly tan to brown (Fig. 1A). Some such macular lesions become patches that are increasingly asymmetrical, poorly circumscribed, and varied in color (Fig. 1B). Other macular lesions of melanoma eventually become papular or nodular. Some other macular lesions may simply enlarge to become patches, others plaques, and still others combinations of papules or nodules upon patches or plaques (Figs. 2A-C 3A and B). Some nodules and tumors ulcerate. Some melanomas may undergo partial or complete regression (Fig. 4). The clinical features of malignant melanomas just described apply to malignant melanomas at all anatomic sites of the skin and mucous membranes.
Abnormal fat accumulation may be visceral (omentum, mesentery, retroperitoneum, pelvic areas), associated with abdominal fullness and bloating (syntomatic fat deposition) 128 , or peripheral 116 , ranging from benign bilateral symmetric lipomatosis 131 to multiple symmetric lipomatosis and to a dorsal ('buffalo hump') and or cervical fat pad ('bull neck') 118 . More recently, lipodystrophy syndrome has been better characterised 132-134 with case-definition signs. Fat redistribution (HARS) may have the aspect of either peripheral lipoatrophy dystrophy, involving the face (loss of buccal, parotid, Bichat's, and preauricular pads, sunken cheeks and eyes, prominent zygomatic arches) buttocks pronounced thinning of the arms and legs with prominence of subcutaneous veins, muscles, and bones loss of normal skin texture, folds and trophism or central lipohypertrophy, with accumulation of fat in the trunk, breast, and or dorso-cervix, leading to bull
Keratinocytes express most of the TLRs and NLRP3, which forms the IL-1-processing inflammasome (see Chapter 4). Keratinocytes in normal skin constitutively synthesize pro-IL-1 and pro-IL-18. Stimuli such as UV irradiation activate the inflammasome to process these pro-cytokines to the active forms, which explains the inflammatory response to sunburn. When signal trans-duction pathways linked to inflammatory responses, such as the NF-kB and STAT3 pathways, are genetically activated only in keratinocytes, mice develop inflammatory skin diseases, showing the potential of keratinocytes to act as central players of cutaneous immune responses.
Transcriptional control is one of the most important control points in the synthesis of MMPs and TIMPs. Several cytokines and growth factors upregulate both MMPs and TIMPs. The MMPs have different, although overlapping, substrate specificities and the TIMPs have different roles because they are differentially expressed by the same cytokine or steroid. In normal skin, there is little MMP activity but injury produces a differential increase in MMPs in different cells of the dermis. MMP1 and MMP10 are increased postinjury within the migrating kerati-nocytes whereas MMP3 is expressed in the proliferating basal keratinocytes. TIMP-1 expression is increased after cells are treated with oncostatin, but TIMP-3 levels fall. The synthetic steroid dexamethasone suppresses TIMP-1 expression while increasing levels of TIMP-3.
Skin eruptions may be more common in primary infections (6). The rash may be present in different ways, including flushing of the face, neck, or chest during the febrile period an erythematous or maculopapular rash after the third or fourth day a confluent petechial rash with round pale areas of normal skin or a combination of these. Less frequent than rash but not rare are mild hemorrhagic manifestations, such as petechiae, epistaxis, gingival hemorrhage, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and microscopic hematuria. Hemorrhage is more commonly associated with a platelet count below 50,000 mm3, although hemorrhage does not necessarily occur with a low platelet count (7). The tourniquet test, a method for the assessment of capillary fragility or platelet function, may be positive in more than one-third of patients with dengue fever. To perform the tourniquet test, the blood pressure cuff is inflated to a point midway between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and maintained for 5...
In addition, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists that inhibit the pituitary-gonadal axis, and vitamin D3 analogs that target receptors in the bladder are also in development. Botulinum A toxin (Botox) has also been explored in patients who were poor candidates for surgery. In a recent study of 10 patients with BPH and AUR, all patients given 200 U Botox injections into the transition zone of the prostate showed improvements in PVR, Qmax, and prostate volume, which were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period.55 Other areas being explored include de-sensitization of C-fibers, which are involved in nociception (pain perception), using intravesical resiniferatoxin solution56 and the effects of beta-radiation on key growth factors, including TGF 1 and bFGF. It is thought that betarays may shrink the hyperplastic cells and reawaken apoptosis.57
Dry Skin and Moisturizers Chemistry and Function, edited by Marie Loden and Howard I. Maibach 27. Dry Skin and Moisturizers Chemistry and Function, Second Edition, edited by Marie Loden and Howard I. Maibach 29. Sensitive Skin Syndrome, edited by Enzo Berardesca, Joachim W. Fluhr, and Howard I. Maibach
A 44-yr-old African-American woman presented with a 7-yr history of amenorrhea, tiredness, unexplained fatigue, weakness, dry skin, and thinning of the hair. She remained healthy until age 37, when she developed oligomenorrhea and thinning of axillary and pubic hair, with loss of hair over the parietal area. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels done on two separate occasions were reported to be normal. Three years before her presentation, and at the age of 41, she was admitted to a hospital with headaches, lethargy, and nausea. The diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus was made. She had an emergency ventriculostomy, followed by a right-sided V-P shunt, which she continues to have. Work-up at that time included a lumbar puncture (WBC 6 mL, glucose 64 mg dL, protein 17 mg dL, VDRL nonreactive) and a MRI of brain without contrast, which revealed an empty sella and postoperative changes. Other findings during that admission included hyponatremia (Na 122 mmol L), normocytic...
Vitamin A is the generic name for compounds with the qualitative biological activity of retinol, i.e. retinoids, beta-carotene and provitamin A carotenoids. The RDA of vitamin A is 700 g for women over age 50 and 900 g for men over 50 (Table 3) 54 . Low serum retinol levels indicate vitamin A deficiency. The effects of vitamin A deficiency are night blindness (hemeralopy), dry-eye syndrome, keratomalacia, Bitot's spots on the conjunctiva, dry skin and follicular hyperkeratosis. Toxicity has been associated with abuse of vitamin A supplements and with diets extremely high in vitamin A content 39 .
In patients who received Iressa alone as a treatment for NSCLC, the most common adverse drug reactions reported were diarrhea, rash, acne, dry skin, nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. These were generally mild to moderate. But more serious instances of interstitial lung disease (ILD) have also been observed in patients receiving Iressa. The overall incidence was about 1 , but in approximately one-third of individuals this proved to be fatal. (The reported incidence of ILD was about 2 in the Japanese postmarketing experience.)
Dry skin is characteristic of relatively severe kidney failure, but is not particularly distressing as a symptom. Itching, however, is a common and sometimes very distressing symptom. It doesn't usually appear until loss of kidney function is severe (about 80 percent). Its cause is also unknown. Our study, summarized at the end of the chapter, suggests that both
Skin care, nudity, and water go together and water evidently mattered a lot to the Greeks. They paid particular attention to water in their new-built settlements. For the Greeks a pure water supply was an important part of public policy and a very visible sign of civic growth and prosperity. They collected rainwater in stone cisterns and drew from springs and wells but from the sixth century bce, impressive new public water supplies were created from artificial conduits. The tyrants of Samos, Athens, and Piraeus all built water conduits to supply their towns and the same hydraulic knowledge was going into harnessing the source at new water sanctuaries and temples. Most longdistance conduits were underground, but from at least the fifth century there were some above-ground aqueducts.2
Several histological changes were observed in psoriatic plaques following efalizumab administration. A marked reduction of keratin-16, corresponding to decreased disease activity, was noted. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 levels were also reduced, indicating reduced cytokine-mediated inflammation. Furthermore, a significant thinning of the epidermis and restoration of normal skin was observed after 28 days of treatment, in concordance with reductions of over 50 in cutaneous T-cell infiltration and reduced CD11a availability. These data demonstrate that by reducing CD11a on the surface of circulating and cutaneous T cells, efalizumab is able to reverse both the histological signs of inflammation and the pathological hyperplasia characteristic of plaque psoriasis.
Agent Clostridium botulinum (marine). Toxin Botulinum toxin, exclusively Type E, in decomposing marine mammals and seafood. Botulinum toxins include Types A-G, but Types A, B, and E (saltwater toxin) cause most human botulism cases. LD50 (IV in mice) 0.0026 mcg kg. Mechanism Clostridial contamination of raw or improperly preserved seafood with exclusive production of botulinum toxin Type E on skin, in tissues, and muscle, particularly near gut. Vectors All home-canned salt- or freshwater seafood, raw seafood, raw marine mammals, especially dolphin, seal, whale-muktuk (raw whale skin and underlying pink blubber). Incubation 10 minutes before eating notify state public health authority and CDC (for release provision of human botulinum antitoxin).
All shellfish, 300 finfish species, and marine mammals can cause poisoning with potent biological toxins and increased CFRs ranging from 1-62 . Example botulinum toxin (botox) is 1, palytoxin is 2, TTX and saxitoxin are 5 among the living world's most potent biological toxins.
Skin cancer is the most common form of neoplasia in the United States. The two most common, but likely highly curable types, are basal cell cancer and squamous cell carcinomas. Conversely, melanoma is rare, but very aggressive. In the last decades, its incidence is steadily increasing in most countries, while not paralleled by the development of new therapeutic agents with a significant impact on survival. At present, early detected melanomas can be cured by surgical excision, while more advanced stages are difficult to control. Once melanomas metastasize, the median 5-year survival rate is less than 5 18 . At present, few data exist on Cav-1 expression and function in non-melanoma skin cancers. A microarray-based gene profiling showed increased Cav-1 expression in human basal cell carcinomas (BCC) as compared to normal skin, suggesting that it may play a dynamic role in controlling the slow progression of these tumors through both decreased cellular motility and tumor promotion 25 We...
The expression of chemokines is normally tightly regulated and is only transiently induced in response to mediators of the inflammatory response such as IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), and a variety of other agents (3). Interestingly, during tumor progression and chronic inflammation, this tight regulation of chemokine expression is disturbed such that numerous tumor lesions and chronically inflammed tissues have been reported to express chemokines continuously (2,6,44,46,50,63,66). For example, in the absence of cytokine stimulation, the expression of MGSA GRO is very low in normal melanocytes and normal retinal pigment epithelial cells, but is quite high in malignant melanoma (7,10,47,63,64). In normal skin keratinocytes, MGSA GRO expression appears to coincide with differentiation, as noted by the presence of immu-noreactive MGSA GRO in suprabasal keratinocytes and in the hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat ducts. By contrast, lesional tissue from 7 7 squamous cell...
In skin, there is a need for a tissue 'filler' for cosmetic reasons. Currently, a popular treatment for wrinkles is the use of botulinum toxin. The effect of this agent is to cause the paralysis of muscles, which influences the development of wrinkles. Comparative studies of using botulinum toxin alone or in conjunction with HA in form of Hyalan B indicate that moderate to severe rhytides were treated better by botulinum toxin combined with HA than with botulinum toxin alone (115). This study was repeated with an HA-botulinum toxin combination where the HA was produced by a non-animal source. Restylane is an HA produced by bacterial fermentation incorporating recombinant gene technology. Again the results of combined therapy were superior to the use of botulinum toxin alone (116). The use of cosmetic fillers has produced quite a significant debate in the literature concerning their safety. The essential debate concerns the source of the materials and whether they produce adverse...
And increases risk of osteoporosis.14 Over 50 of older adults consume inadequate vitamin D. With age, the kidney is less able to convert dietary vitamin D to the active form, 1,25 (OH) vitamin D.15 The aging intestine is also less responsive to the signal from vitamin D to increase absorption of calcium. In younger people, significant amounts of vitamin D can be synthesized in sun-exposed skin, but aging skin is less able to synthesize the vitamin. Compounding this, many older adults, particularly those with disabilities, obtain little sunlight exposure. In older adults, particularly during the winter months in northern climates, vitamin D supplementation helps maintain bone density and prevent frac-tures.16
Neurons transmit impulses from one part of the body to another. Many kinds of stimuli, including touch, sound, light, taste, temperature, and smell, cause neurons to fire in response. When you touch something, signals from touch sensors travel along sensory nerves from your skin, through your spinal cord, and into your brain. Your brain then sends out messages through your spinal cord to the motor nerves, telling your muscles how to respond. To evoke this response, nerve cells must transmit signals along their length and from one cell to the next.
Currently little is known about the cutaneous expression of different CA isozymes. Recent immunohistochemical studies (Mastrolorenzo et al. 2003) have provided additional evidence for the previously reported demonstration of the presence of CA in normal skin by Eichhorn et al. (1994). Data presented from an immunohistochemical investigation on the expression of three isozymes CA I, CA II and CA IX in some specimens of normal human skin clearly showed that in the epidermis both CA I and CA II were expressed in the spinous layers of the skin. In particular, moderate staining was predominantly observed in the cytoplasm, basolateral and apical plasma membrane of the prickle cells, and the basal cells displayed CA activity in their cytoplasm and in the apical and lateral membranes. No staining was found in the stratum granulosum and horny layer. A different pattern similar to the first description by Hansson (1967) of CAs I and II activity is less frequently shown with the staining at the...
Pepper and citric acid play special roles as synergists. Citric acid potentiates the antibacterial effects of other spices, because low pH disrupts bacterial cell membranes (Sherman and Billing, 1999). Black pepper comes from Piper nigrum, an exclusively tropical plant which has several useful properties. For example, the compound piperine inhibits the ubiquitous, deadly bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Black pepper is also a 'bioavailability enhancer,' meaning that it acts synergistically to increase the rate at which cells, including microorganisms, absorb phytotoxins (Sherman and Billing, 1999). Khan and Balick (2001) note that tamarind increased bioavailabilty of other drugs, including, I presume, herbal.
Cassileth et al. reported on 50 patients with hairy cell leukemia treated with DCF and followed for a median of 39 months.24 After treatment for a median of 3 months, patients achieved a 64 CR and a 20 PR rate, with relapses in 6 of the 42 responders (14 ) (see Table 31.2). In another early trial through the National Cancer Institute-Canadian Clinical Trials Group, Johnston et al. documented a CR in 25 of 28 (89 ) evaluable patients with all remaining patients achieving a PR (11 ).25 Patients were treated with 4 mg m2 intravenously weekly for three consecutive weeks, repeated every 8 weeks, and continued for two additional cycles beyond CR. Overall toxicity included a 48 incidence of fever and infection, a 62 incidence of lethargy, and a 76 incidence of nausea and vomiting. Additional side effects included anorexia, dry skin, altered taste, and paresthesias.
The difference in tumor EC surface markers can be taken advantage of therapeutically. For example, Hoffman et al.369 have shown by phage display that peptides with the amino acid sequences CGKRK and CDTRL preferentially bind to tumor neovasculature in skin carcinomas compared to normal skin, and to some extent to premalignant dysplastic skin lesions. Such differences in the molecular diversity of tumor compared to normal ECs can be used to guide anticancer agents selectively to cancer neovas-culature and provide a novel mode of targeted
Most drugs that decrease anxiety also produce sedation. Surprisingly, kava kava itself does not appear to have this effect. However, kava kava may increase the sedating effects of alcohol and several medications that are frequently used in MS, including lioresal (Baclofen), tizanidine (Zanaflex), and diazepam (Valium). The effects of kava kava on MS fatigue are not known. Heavy use of kava kava over months may produce skin problems, red eyes, itching, and other difficulties.
Be unilateral or bilateral and cause great inconvenience and worry to the patient. It tends slowly to become more marked over many years. A small proportion of patients eventually develops Parkinsonism. Cases of recent onset need to be investigated because they might result from an intracranial space-taking lesion. In most cases, though, no underlying cause can be found. Patients with this type of ble-pharospasm (essential blepharospasm) can often be treated quite effectively by injecting small doses of botulinum toxin into the eyelids, but these need to be repeated every few months.
5 Common Skin Problems Answered
Our skin may just feel like a mere shield that protects us from the world outside. But, the fact is, its more than just the mask that keeps your insides in. It is a very unique and remarkable complex organ that reflects our general health.