Annexin 2 And Viral Infection

In addition to possible roles in bacterial infection, annexin 2 is also implicated as a co-receptor for a number of viruses. It was identified as a potential receptor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on Hep2 cells, binding to the viral G-protein, and indeed its expression was increased following viral infection (Raynor et al., 1999 Malhotra et al., 2003). Annexin 2 has also been identified as a co-receptor for cytomegalovirus (CMV) (Adlish et al., 1990 Taylor and Cooper, 1990 Raynor et...

Annexin 1 And Inflammation

Annexin 1 is predominantly an intracellular protein initially identified as a major target for phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is expressed at high levels in many cell types and has a crucial role in EGF-mediated inward vesiculation of the EGFR (White et al., 2006). Signalling through the EGFR leads to stimulation of the MAP kinase pathway via an intermediate complex involving p21 ras and Grb2. Annexin 1 appears to competitively inhibit recruitment of this...

Annexins And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition that can present in two different ways type-1 insulin-dependent diabetes or the more common type-2 insulin non-dependent diabetes. In both instances it is the resulting hyperglycemia that is thought to be primarily responsible for the disease facies. Although diabetes is a systemic condition that affects all parts of the body, for the purposes of this discussion the endothelium will be the main point of focus, since the most complete data regarding the role of...

Annexins And Cancer

As previously described, annexins are ubiquitous proteins, expressed to different degrees in different cell types. The annexin 'fingerprint' of cells may vary between quiescent and activated cells or indeed as cells undergo steps in developmental maturation. There have been many recent studies which have identified changes in annexin expression during neoplastic progression. Many of these studies depend on comparative proteomic or genomic analysis of tumour and 'normoplastic' tissues. In some...

S100a6

RAGE-mediated S100 proteins biological functions and transduction pathways. Various members of the S100 proteins family bind to RAGE. S100B activates cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which then activate the Akt (Protein kinase B) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erk) pathways, leading to changes in the activity of NF-kB transcription factor. In contrast, S100A6 induces cellular apoptosis by...

Gcap Mutations And Retina Disease

The GCAP1 gene has been linked to autosomal dominant cone or cone-rod dystrophies (adCD, adCORD) in several unrelated families (Figure 7), and the GCAP2 gene was recently linked to autosomal dominant RP in a single small family (Sato et al., 2005). The Y99C mutation is located adjacent to the EF3-hand motif (Payne et al., 1998) and three mutations (I143NT, E155G, L151F) have been described in or adjacent to the EF4-hand motif (Wilkie et al., 2001 Nishiguchi et al., 2004 Sokal et al., 2004 Jiang...