Filing For Social Security Retirement
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Be this as it may, in 1972 Dr Sprague was approaching retirement. He had built the West Point Medicinal Chemistry Department into a first rate organization, he was the unquestioned boss, and the only department head his chemists had ever known. In 1972 I had set foot on West Point soil only once, that being in 1969 as a result of Dr Denkewalter's hint to West Point management that his peptide chemists would be pleased to give lectures about the synthesis of RNase. Drs Holly and Veber, as well as Dr Denkewalter and I drove to Pennsylvania where Drs Veber and Holly reported on our work.
I didn't even know that Dr Sprague was approaching retirement. Fortunately, Dr Tishler forewarned me and, therefore, when Dr Beyer came to Rahway to invite me to head medicinal chemistry at West Point, I remained fairly calm. At that time, our daughter, Carla, was a senior in high school who obviously did not want to move to Pennsylvania. Therefore, during the first year, I spent my weekends in Scotch Plains, NJ, and the week at the Holiday Inn in Kulpsville, PA. It was actually a good arrangement. I had no knowledge of pharmacology in general, and no information about any of the projects at West Point. Thus, I spent all my evenings trying to learn about the ongoing West Point programs. I immediately recruited Professor Samuel Danishefsky as a consultant in organic chemistry as well as two biochemists, Professors Jeremy Knowles and John Law. Professor Knowles was about to move from Oxford to Harvard, and he alleged that his consultantship income...
Dr Sprague had initiated a program to discover potential drugs possessing two different biological properties that would be useful for the treatment of a given medical problem, e.g., diuretics, which also induce the excretion of uric acid. Dr Sprague had identified a lead compound at the time of his retirement that was a uricosuric diuretic. Subsequently, we discovered a compound good enough to be nominated as a candidate for safety assessment. Unfortunately, it failed to pass that critical step.
Precise patterns of ebb and flow in personality probably vary with generations, because each cohort encounters a unique set of pressures and opportunities at successive life phases. However, certain causal processes appear to be consistently important. One influential developmental force is the social clock (Neugarten 1970). Most societies have rather firm beliefs about age appropriateness of various actions. Some of these beliefs are formalized through minimum-age laws or standards (e.g., for marriage, voting, or retirement), but most are informally imposed. The social clock sets the pace for psychosocial development within a given generation and provides a standard that individuals may internalize as a normal, expectable life cycle.
This section will provide a brief description of picture coders supported under the image compression component of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard (see Chapters 2 and 13 of this book and 74 ). The DICOM standard provides a format for collating all information associated with individual medical images. It encapsulates pictures compressed through standardized coders within its structure, thus ensuring modularity. This modular arrangement allows for future introduction and retirement of coders to and from the standard. Once medical images are bound to the DICOM format, the manner in which they are stored and transmitted is covered by the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) (see Chapter 13 and 75, 76 ).
After my retirement from Merck, when consulting for various biotechnology companies and also for big Pharma, I would encounter situations where a breakthrough had been achieved either by those companies themselves, or by their competitors. When I urged them to act on these events more expeditiously, I was sometimes told that switching manpower would be bad for the morale of the scientists being transferred. I do not believe that this assessment is generally valid, because the company's interests may demand such action and also because medicinal chemists prefer to be on a 'hot project' rather than a lukewarm one. Both of these considerations guided the decision at Merck to increase manpower dramatically on the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor program. Patchett's success paid off handsomely for many hypertensive patients and, in the process, also for Merck & Co., Inc.
At that time, in 1973, there was little or no enthusiasm at ICI Pharmaceuticals Division to pursue a major program of drug development for the treatment of breast cancer. Walpole, in contrast, was optimistic about exploiting ICI46,474 as a breast cancer drug and agreed not to take early retirement if the antiestrogen was supported for clinical approval. This was achieved in the UK through the Committee for Safety of Medicines in 1973 and in December 1977 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States. The scientists at ICI Pharmaceuticals Division did not conduct any systematic study of the mechanism of action or antitumor properties of ICI46,474. These studies were conducted outside ICI Pharmaceuticals Division with academic collaborators (the process was advanced through the good offices of Walpole who remained as a consultant for ICI after his retirement in the early 1970s). Laboratory programs were established at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in...
There is now consistent agreement from several different sources that multidisciplinary programs are cost effective. Jensen et al. 9 reported that in their program there were statistically significant cost reductions in terms of reduced sick leave and some savings in disability pension for the female group receiving comprehensive treatment, compared to control conditions (cognitive behavioral therapy alone, behaviorally oriented physiotherapy alone, and a treatment as usual control group).
There is no blind pension in the UK but those registered blind have a special income tax allowance and some exemptions from deductions from income support. Blind persons can have parking concessions and a free National Health Service (NHS) sight test, as well as rail cards and bus passes. Disability living allowance can be available for blind people under the age of 65 years but for the over-65s, only those who are both blind and deaf can qualify. Those seeking these concessions should consult an expert in the field. There are a number of voluntary organisations that run clubs, social centres and supply various other aids and benefits. For example, the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) provides a comprehensive range of services including the popular talking-book service. It also supplies regular funds for research into the causes of blindness.
Most brief mental status examinations do not assess frontal executive functions, and as a result, individuals with frontotemporal dementia may score in the normal range on brief examinations in the early to middle stages of disease. Several short batteries have been developed to help clinicians test for frontal lobe changes, including the Executive Interview (Royall et al. 1992) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB Dubois et al. 2000). Both measures take about 10 minutes to administer and cover several different aspects of behavior, cognition, or motor function affected by frontal lobe syndromes. The FAB differentiates better between frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease than does the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (Slachevsky et al. 2004), and it is now used frequently in clinical research (e.g., Mendez et al. 2005). The Executive Interview correlates well with neuropsychological measures of executive function and is sensitive to differences in everyday functional...
Substance use is commonly circumscribed to recreational activities. Furthermore, an individual who does not have socially satisfying leisure activities may use alcohol or drugs to cope with the stress of boredom. This may be particularly problematic among members of the elderly population who have not developed a rewarding goal directed lifestyle following retirement. A somewhat similar problem may confront adolescents who have substantial unstructured time. Presently, there are no standardized procedures to evaluate recreation and
Retirement can lead to reduced household income and thus to insecurity about buying food and then to weight loss 29 . Moreover, retirement can also lead to social isolation, changes in life style, and loss of contacts. All of these add up to the risk of weight loss and cachexia following retirement. Simple changes, such as the expansion of commercial shopping areas, the erection of high-rise apartments, or the increasing diversity of the neighbourhood, may elicit a strong sense of insecurity within an environment the older adult previously perceived as safe 29 .
Pension density broth the apparent viscosity may reach to very large values, making the objective of achieving homogeneity throughout the bulk fluid in the entire volume of reactor more difficult. In case of such gross inhomogeni-ety, particularly if it affects the growth of the microorganisms or stability of biocatalyst, it may be necessary to dilute the broth at the cost of production rate in the given volume.
Hypnagogic hypnopompic hallucinations and sleep paralysis do not affect all subjects, are often transitory, and occur commonly in the general population 46 . Disturbed nocturnal sleep seldom occurs in the first stages and generally worsens with age 39 .Narcolepsy is a very incapacitating disease. It interferes with every aspect of life. The negative social impact of narcolepsy has been extensively studied. Patients experience impairments in driving and a high prevalence of either car or machine-related accidents. Narcolepsy also interferes with professional performance, leading to unemployment, frequent changes of employment, working disability or early retirement 47-50 . Several subjects also develop symptoms of depression, although these symptoms are often masked by anticataplectic medications 47, 50, 51 .