Partially stabilized zirconia is commonly used in prosthetic devices because it is stronger and has high resistance to wear. The flexural strength and fracture toughness of zirconia is higher as compared to other ceramics which makes it resistant to masticatory forces when used as crows with exact precision of fit [52, 53]. Also, zirconia implants have shown to accumulate less bacteria in vivo [54] and undergo a lower rate of inflammation-associated processes compared to titanium [55]. Zirconia has also been used in shoulder reconstruction surgery and as a coating over titanium in dental implants. Yittria stabilized zirconium oxide implants include knee

Fig. 1.8 Zirconium oxide (OxiniumTM) knee implant (Courtesy: Smith and Nephew Inc. [56])

joints and spinal implants. Figure 1.8 shows zirconium oxide knee implant component manufactured by Smith & Nephew Inc.

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