It is said "Necessity is the mother of invention". We believe that "Imagination is also the mother of invention". About 30 years ago when we conceived the "1-hydroxyindole hypothesis" [1-7], it was an imaginary story because it involved two impossible problems set against common sense in indole chemistry at that time [8]. The first problem was the lack of both synthetic and natural products having 1-hydroxyindole skeletons. In addition, no one knew how to synthesize the unknown 1-hydroxytryptamines and -tryptophans. The second was the prediction that they would undergo unprecedented nucleophilic substitution reactions.

Presently, the chemistry of 1-hydroxyindoles, -tryptamines, and -tryptophans seems to have become a gold mine in which we can find new facts and reactions everywhere. In this review, we would like to report briefly on the progress we have made since our previous reviews (up to the end of August, 2005) avoiding any overlap with their contents [5-7].

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