The Body Beautiful

Roemer, 'Internationalism in Medicine and Public Health', in W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, 2 vols. (London Routledge, 1993), ii. 1417-35 W. F. Bynum, 'Medical Philanthropy after 1850', ibid. ii. 1480-94. See also the classic work by Pyotr Kropotkin that influenced early 20th-century socialists, communists, and anarchists, Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution (London William Heinemann, 1902). 2. M. Gorsky, J. Mohan, and T. Willis,...

Asceticism

See generally Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, i An Introduction, ii The Use of Pleasure, iii The Care of the Self, trans. Robert Hurley (London Penguin, 1986) on askesis, ii. 72-7. See also generally Peter Brown, The Making of Late Antiquity (Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1978), and id., 'Asceticism Pagan and Christian', in Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, xiii The Late Empire, AD 337-425 (Cambridge Cambridge University Press,...

Self Help and Holistic Medicine

During the 1950s, when scientific hospital-based medicine became widely accessible (and freely used the new wonder-drug penicillin and a whole range of new antibiotics), many people had thrown out their array of home remedies with apparent relief.39 After 1945 in Britain and elsewhere, what had remained of the old medical categories of the 'Institutes of Hygiene' were split administratively between scores of different government and university departments and sciences. Public health problems...

The Private Parts

'The cleanliness of the rest of your person, which, by the way, will conduce greatly to your health, I refer from time to time to the bagnio,' remarked Chesterfield casually, but not urgently.9 He might have known better than to send his son to France with that advice or perhaps he assumed that French aristocratic males merely looked on while their womenfolk bathed and sluiced. In France the aristocratic tendre for cosmetic cleanliness that had developed during the seventeenth century had...

Neoplatonism

Most of the Church Fathers were soaked in the classics of Roman scholarship St Jerome had to put himself under a special penance to stop himself from reading them. The pagan philosophies themselves were still strong and active. The Alexandrian philosopher Plotinus (ad 205-70) had inspired an ascetic, Neoplatonic, or 'gnostic' tradition within the early Christian Church, and his prolific writings on the joys of contemplation lived long after him.14 Plotinus believed that all physical matter was...

Modern Well Being

In the 1960s and 1970s naturism and wealth coincided on the warm and sunny Pacific coast of California, and produced a luxurious 'New Age' theology of body culture that ultimately became the 'well-being sector'. 'Hippie' teenagers who grew up in the 1970s and 1980s formed the core group of affluent health enthusiasts who rediscovered multicultural medicine in the 1980s and 1990s and in the United States, where personal health insurance was expensive or simply not affordable, and individual...

The Salerno Regimen

Salerno was originally a Roman coastal health resort and spa, situated 35 miles south-east of Naples down the coast from Baiae. In 847 Salerno became the port capital of a new Lombard principality, and the first Benedictine medical monks arrived. Over 300 years nine monasteries were established, and Salerno's three Roman aqueducts were rebuilt, serving a series of public fountains, the old public bathhouses, and private customers en route, some with their own private bathhouses including the...

Revolutionary Hygiene and Naturphilosophie

After 1789 the French Revolution gave hygiene a new political status. Revolutionary French hygienists enthusiastically followed the plan of rational medicine set by the philosophes, and used hygiene and preventive medicine as a stick with which to beat the forces of conservatism. Revolutionary hygiene progressed from being a lengthy article in the Encyclop die m thodique in the 1780s to becoming officially adopted as one of the rights of the healthy citizen, and one of the duties of the state,...

Galens Hygiene

Galen's epic contribution to Western medicine came in the confident days of the mid-Empire. He was born in the reign of Hadrian in ad 129, lived his mature life under the great philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-80), and died several emperors later in c.216. His professional influence from writing a corpus of over 350 titles cannot be underestimated in total about as much as all other Greek medical writings put together. As he said, Hippocrates 'staked the way, but I made it passable'. He...