• Strabismus

• Supranuclear disorders of eye movement, e.g., skew deviation, the ocular tilt reaction (see Chap. 11); cyclodeviation, e.g., 4th nerve palsy (see Chap. 10)

• Optic disc ectopia or retinal traction (e.g., retinopathy of prematurity or diabetic retinopathy)

Additional testing, when indicated:

• Fundoscopy (altered optic disc position, tilting of the papillomacular bundle)

• Examination of ocular positions and motility

• MRI/CT, neurological consultation

• ENT consultation

Visual field defects

Pathogenesis/differential diagnosis

4.7.3 Change in size and displacement of the physiologic blind spot

Enlargement and temporal displacement:

• Ocular wall ectasia

Shrinkage and nasal displacement:

• High hyperopia, aphakia

Additional testing, when needed:

• Recheck refraction

4.8. Nerve fiber bundle defects

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