N95

Nagel anomaloscope 224 NAION, see nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy nasal

- hemiretina 22

nasopharyngeal carcinoma 152 neglect 188 nerve fiber

- bundle 104, 109

- layer 20, 21 neurinoma 172 neuritis, retrobulbar 116 neuro-ophthalmic

- emergency 3

- evaluation of children 245

- examination 192 neuroblastoma 64, 170 neurodegenerative disorder 272 neurofibromatosis 121, 129 neurogenic oculomotor paralysis 142 neuronavigation 296 neuropeptides 217 neuroretinal rim 102 neuroretinitis 115 neurosurgery

- operative technique 293

- trans-sphenoidal approach 295

- transconjunctival approach 293

- transorbital approach 293 neurosyphilis 67

night blindness, see also nyctalopia 98 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) 118 nonconcomitance 137

- strabismus 65

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

(NSAID) 218 noradrenalin 60

Nothnagel-Claude's syndrome 143 NPH, see nucleus prepositus hypoglossi NSAID, see nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nucleus

- of Cajal 158

- prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) 158

nyctalopia (see also night blindness) 14, 93, 98, 227 nyctometer 14 nystagmus 62, 71, 81, 159

- central vestibular 167

- congenital 93, 98

- endpoint 160

- gaze-evoked 160, 165, 283

- in childhood 256

- latent 169

- ocular 169

- optokinetic 207, 209

- positional (end gaze) 276

- types 276

- vestibular 276

objective acuity testing 98 occipital cortex 27 occipitotemporal area 186 occult diabetes 118 OCT, see optical coherence tomography ocular

- motility

- - infranuclear disorders 137

- supranuclear disorders 156

- motor system 158

- myasthenia 149, 162

- myositis 134

- nystagmus 169, 256

- resting potential 87

- tilt reaction (OTR) 162 oculocutaneous albinism 81 oculomasticatory movements 4 oculomotor

- apraxia 159

- field 29

- nerve 66

- - aberrant regeneration 145

- paralysis 65

- paresis 66, 144

- testing 61, 249

Oguchi's disease 90 OKN, see optokinetic nystagmus oligodendrocyte 225 oligodendroglioma 172 one-and-a-half syndrome 161, 162, 277

ONTT, see optic neuritis treatment trial ophthalmic history 1, 2 ophthalmoplegia 142 ophthalmoplegic migraine 145, 218

ophthalmoscope 131

- direct 12

- indirect 10 opsoclonus 170 optic

- after damage to the optic tract 124

- after papilledema 124

- Kjer type 243

- Leber's hereditary 243

- chiasm (see also chiasm and chiasmal) 22

- disc, see also optic nerve head 101, 228

- edema 116

- nerve 21

- - sheath meningioma 103, 173,

- - treatment trial (ONTT) 115

- typical 117

- bilateral 12

- carcinomatous 122

- malnutrition 122

- radiation 121

- toxic 122

- traumatic 124

- unilateral 12

- radiation 25

- tract 24

optical coherence tomography

(OCT) 14, 259 optociliary shunt 103 optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) 164,

192, 207, 209, 276 orbital

- cellulitis 3, 134

- disease 127

- inflammation 133

- pseudotumor 134

- varix 135 oscillatory potential 93 oscillopsia 166, 167 osteosarcoma 181 otolith 162

OTR, see ocular tilt reaction palinopsia 190 papillary aplasia 108 papilledema 97, 103, 104, 108-110, 124, 176, 180, 226

- atrophic 111

- chronic 110

- early stage 110

- fully developed 110 papillitis 116

papillomacular bundle 22, 104 papillorenal syndrome 106 paracentral scotoma 35, 83

- differential diagnosis 44 paradoxical pupil 67 paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) 157

paratrigeminal syndrome 219 paresis 137

- of a lateral rectus muscle 138

- of an oblique muscle 138

- of Muller's smooth muscle 62

- of the facial nerve 274

- of the oculomotor nerve 62

- of the trochlear nerve 149 paresthesia 281

paretic mydriasis 142 Parinaud's syndrome 61, 66, 158, 159

paroxysmal hemicrania 215 parvocellular system 22 patellar tendon reflex 282 Paton's lines 104, 110 pattern

- dystrophy 90

PDE, see phosphodiesterase pediatric retinoblastoma 173 pegvisomant 179 pelopsia 190 PERG, see pattern ERG perifoveal depression 84 perimetry 13, 20, 22, 29

- Goldmann 35, 37

- normal findings 42

- automated 38

- - supraliminal 39

perinatal cerebral asphyxia 258 periventricular leukomalacia 258 pernicious anemia 81 persistent mydriasis 68 phagocytosis 224 pharmacologic pupil 66 phenothiazine 225 phenylephrine 61 phenytoin 225 phonophobia 217 phosphodiesterase (PDE) 224 photophobia 8, 14, 132, 217, 224, 228

photoreceptor 20, 72, 93 phototoxicity 84 physiologic blind spot 40, 42, 46

- displacement 46 pilocarpine 62, 65, 66 pilocytic astrocytoma 172, 177,

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