Radiation as a Cancer Therapy

Roentgen rays were discovered at the end of 1895 by Prof. Wilhelm C. Roentgen of the University of Wurzburg, Germany. He was rewarded with the first Nobel Prize in Physics for this epochal discovery. By 1896, early investigators (including Thomas Alva Edison in America) found that these mysterious rays could not only visualize the interior of solid objects, such as the human body, but could have a destructive effect on living tissues. The first attempts to use radiation as a cancer treatment...

Phytoestrogens

Phytoestrogens are found only in a few plant species. The most important representatives occur in soy beans (genistein) and flax seeds (lignans). They resemble human estrogens in structure, though their activity is much lower (0.1 ). Depending on their concentration and the amount of the body's own estrogens, they may act as week estrogens or, through competitive inhibition of endogenous estrogens, also as antiestrogens (26). By stimulating the synthesis of SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin)...

Summary

Is it then possible to heal with mistletoe therapy Mistletoe is certainly not the cure-all wonder drug described by Pliny. The expectations of those affected and of the attending physicians may be very high here. Properly performed, adjuvant mistletoe therapy can be of valuable help in the care of cancer patients. Adequate treatment of a cancer patient must always consider the patient's individual situation and possible reactions. Fintelmann (13) emphasizes that, provided that a healing effect...

Sponsors as well as patients and the public are interested in positive results This carries

An increased risk of publication bias or even manipulation of data. * One should be skeptical about positive results derived from studies that did not involve careful monitoring and an external center of biometrics. It has been repeatedly noticed that, among several studies addressing the same question, those involving an external biometrical center produced far less spectacular results than the remaining studies. A rather tragic example in recent years was the treatment of breast cancer with...

References

Bartram HP, Kasper H Bedeutung mehrfach unges ttigter Fetts uren bei der Kolonkarzinogenese. Akt Ern hr Med. 1995 20 31-35. 2. Belitz HD, Grosch W Lehrbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. 4th ed., Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1992. 3. Bendich A Carotenoids and the immune response. Am J Nutr. 1991 136 112-114. 4. Biesalski HK Antioxidative Vitamine in der Pr vention. Dt rzteblatt. 1995 92 1316-1321. 5. Biesalski HK et al Kenntnisstand Selen-Ergebnisse des Hohenheimer Konsensusmeetings. Akt Ern hr Med....

Upper Safe Permissible and Toxic Dosages

Selenium intakes of up to 350 g day by adults of normal weight are recognized as safe for indefinite periods. The reference dose RfD for selenium of 350 g day is equal to 5 g Se kg per body weight and equals five times the recommended dietary allowance RDA 89 . Apart from the RfD several other selenium dosage limits have been defined by different regulatory agencies. For example, the British Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy of the Department of Health in 1991 defined 450 g Se day as...

Lectins and Tumor Metastasis

The discovery that human liver contains membrane-associated p-D-galactose-specific lectins has initiated new lines of thought and experimental approaches 1 . Based on this finding, the orga-notropism of metastatic malignant tumors has been interpreted in the light of a lectin-receptor theory for the first time 2 . According to this theory, the galactose residue on tumor cell membranes may be regarded as a tumor-associated cryptantigen. This carbohydrate group could have formed secondarily...

Special Applications

The majority of clinical studies using standardized mistletoe extracts are flawed with respect to randomization, blinding, stratification, or patient numbers, thus making an adequate scientific evaluation impossible. The shortcomings include - unacceptable documentation of the disease diagnosis, stage, and duration of disease previous therapies evaluation of prognostic factors - therapeutic intervention, result, and statistics are not understandable or verifiable by the observer - comparison of...

Clinical Studies

Active Immunization with Intact Modified Tumor Cells A tumor vaccine made up of intact tumor cells from the patient has the advantage that all relevant tumor proteins and peptides are present in the vac Table 19.1 Representative human tumor antigens T-cell epitope3 amino-acid sequence MLLAVLYCL YLSGANLNL Patient-specific 1 All tumor antigens are derived from cellular proteins. 2 Intracellular degradation of these proteins creates the peptides listed in the right column these peptides are...