Nutrition may play a role in the development of COPD, especially where oxi-dants and antioxidants are involved. Protective dietary factors concerned include the antioxidant vitamins C and E, magnesium and fish oils. In addition to the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant systems, the antioxidant vitamins C and E may enhance host defences against the oxidative stress of cigarette smoke. Fish oil contains highly polyunsaturated w-3 fatty acids that act as competitive inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Fish oil may therefore down-regulate the inflammatory potency of lipid mediators such as LTB4 and provide protection against COPD [66,67].
It is possible that smokers who develop COPD have dietary deficiencies in the nutritional elements mentioned above. However, this hypothesis is not supported by longitudinal studies  and would not explain the whole problem, since there are so many confounding factors between diet and cigarette smoking (alcohol intake, etc.).
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