Haemophilus influenzae Streptococcus pneumoniae Branhamella cattarhalis Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chlamydia pneumoniae

Common pollutants Nitrogen dioxide Particulates Sulphur dioxide Ozone

Table 15.1 Causes of COPD exacerbations.

the major source of airway IL-8 at exacerbation. In comparison with asthma, COPD exacerbations are associated with generally less pronounced airway inflammatory responses [20], and this may explain the relatively reduced response compared to steroids seen at exacerbation in COPD patients [21-27].

What are the causes of COPD exacerbations?

The triggers of COPD exacerbations are shown in Table 15.1. Respiratory viral infections are the most important cause of exacerbations. COPD exacerbations are frequently triggered by upper respiratory tract infections and these are commoner in the winter months, when there are more respiratory viral in

Fig. 15.4 Graph showing the cumulative percentage of viral and non-viral exacerbations recovering with respect to time after onset during 150 COPD exacerbations. P = 0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test. Data adapted from Seemungal et al. [36]).

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Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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