1 Reid L. The pathology of chronic bronchitis. In: Reid L. The Pathology of Emphysema. London: Lloyd-Luke Medical Books, 1967.
2 Medical Research Council. Definition and classification of chronic bronchitis for clinical and epidemiological purposes. Lancet 1965; i: 775-9.
3 Report of the Government Chemist, London, 1973.
4 Rogan JM, Attfield MD, Jacobsen M et al. Role of dust in the working environment in development of chronic bronchitis in British coal miners. Br J Ind Med 1973; 30: 217-26.
5 Brinkman GL, Block DL, Cress C. The effects of bronchitis on occupational pulmonary ventilation over an 11-year period. J Occup Med 1972; 14: 61520.
6 Hankinson JL, Reger RB, Morgan WKC.
Maximal expiratory flows in coal miners. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 116: 175-80.
7 Cosio M, Glazio H, Hogg JC et al. Relations between structural change in small airways and pulmonary function tests. N Engl J Med 1977; 298: 1277-81.
8 Gould GA, Redpath AT, Ryan M et al. Parenchymal emphysema measured by CT lung density correlates with lung function in patients with bullous emphysema. Eur Respir J1993; 6: 698-704.
9 Fletcher C, Peto R. The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction. BMJ 1977; i: 1645-8.
10 Vestbo J, Prescott E, Lange P. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEVj decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 153: 1530-5.
11 Hankinson JL, Reger RB, Morgan WKC. Maximal expiratory flows in coal miners. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 116: 175-80.
12 Nisar M, Walshaw MJ, Earis JE, Pearson MG, Calverley PMA. Assessment of airway reversibility of airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive airways disease. Thorax 1990; 45: 190-4.
13 Tager IB, Segal MR, Speizer FE, Weiss ST. The natural history of forced expiratory volumes, effect of cigarette smoking and respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 837-49.
14 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. NHLBI/WHO Workshop Report: Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2001 (NIH Publication No. 2701).
15 Lung and Asthma Information Agency. Prevalence of Asthma Treated in the General Population. London: St George's
Hospital Medical School, 1999 (Factsheet 99/1).
16 Confronting COPD in North America and Europe. www.gsk.com 2001.
17 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease National Institute for Health, NHLBI publication 2701 April 2001.
18 BTS Guidelines for the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Thorax 1997; 52 (Suppl. 5): S1-28.
19 Tweedale PM, Alexander F, McHardy GJR. Short-term variability in FEVj and bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive ventilatory defects. Thorax 1987; 42: 487-90.
20 American Thoracic Society. Standardization of spirometry: 1994 update. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152: 1107-36.
21 Kelly CA, Gibson GJ. Relation between FEV1 and peak expiratory flow in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1988; 43: 335-6.
Was this article helpful?
If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.