Predicted value reference equations

Reference values are derived by measuring lung function in a standardized way in a large group of non-smoking normal individuals. Many such reference ranges exist in the US [11-14]. In Europe, most lung function departments and equipment manufacturers use the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) equation [15]. This was derived from a review of the European literature for lung function in normal Caucasian men and women age 25-70 years, and an overall mean of the reviewed data is represented. There are also reference ranges for different ethnic groups and children.

Quadrelli et al. [10] have compared the values of FEVj and FVC for a range of commonly used predictive ranges from the USA and Europe (Table 4.1). There are significant differences for both men and women, especially with increasing age. The differences may be explained to some extent on the basis of ethnic, social and geographical variations, as well as environmental exposure.

From a practical point of view, it is important to chose an appropriate predictive equation that is pertinent to the majority of patients being studied and to keep to it. Changing electronic equipment with different normal values will introduce unnecessary error.

Table 4.1 Predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEVj) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in men 1.70 m in height and women 1.60 m in height, derived from different reference equations. Adapted from Quadrelli et al. [10].

FVC FEVl

Table 4.1 Predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEVj) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in men 1.70 m in height and women 1.60 m in height, derived from different reference equations. Adapted from Quadrelli et al. [10].

FVC FEVl

Age

Morris

Cherniack

Crapo

Knudson

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