Fig. 5.1 (a) Maximal and tidal flow-volume loops in a healthy subject and in a patient with COPD. The patient exhibits markedly reduced FEV1 (1s), expiratory flow limitation and lung hyperinflation (i.e. reduced inspiratory capacity [IC]). (b) Lung volume compartments in the same patient. Note marked lung hyperinflation with reduced IC compared with normal. EELV, end-expiratory lung volume; EILV, end-inspiratory lung volume; TLC, total lung capacity; IRV, inspiratory reserve volume; VT, tidal volume.

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