Increased Risk of Deficiency

• If dietary intake of calcium is poor, calcium will be mobilized from the skeleton to maintain circulating levels. Low dietary intake over time can lead to demineralization of the skeleton and increase risk of osteoporosis.3

• Chronic use of many medications, including antacids, laxatives, and steroids, produces negative calcium balance by reducing absorption and increasing excretion.

• Malabsorption. Digestive disorders that reduce fat absorption sharply decrease the bioa-vailabilty of calcium from dietary sources. The unabsorbed fats bind the calcium, making it unavailable for absorption.

• Vitamin D deficiency-common among middle-aged and older adults4 5 and in the general population during the dark winter months-reduces absorption of calcium from the diet.

• In people with atrophic gastritis (common among the elderly), loss of gastric-acid secretion reduces absorption of calcium from the diet.

• At menopause loss of estrogen accelerates loss of calcium from the skeleton and greatly increases urinary excretion. Up to 15-20% of the bone mineral density of the skeleton can be lost in the 4-6 years around menopause.

ro TD

ju 500

ro TD

ju 500

Average daily intake for Women aged 19-50

Average daily intake for Men aged 19-50

Fig.3.9: Calcium intake by adults in the USA. Most adults consume much less calcium than is currently recommended. Women are at higher risk of deficiency: 75-85% have inadequate intakes and 25% obtain only 200-300 mg/day.

(Sources: 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council; Heaney RP. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982.36;986; Human Nutrition Information Service. USDA Report 85-3,1986)

continued

Average daily intake for Women aged 19-50

Average daily intake for Men aged 19-50

continued

Soybeans, dry

100 g

260

Cabbage

100 g

212

Yoghurt

100 g

205

Whole milk

100 dl

120

Fennel

100 g

109

Broccoli

100 g

105

Salmon

100 g

87

Orange

1, medium

80

Whole-wheat bread

100 g

63

Fig.3.9: Calcium intake by adults in the USA. Most adults consume much less calcium than is currently recommended. Women are at higher risk of deficiency: 75-85% have inadequate intakes and 25% obtain only 200-300 mg/day.

(Sources: 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council; Heaney RP. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982.36;986; Human Nutrition Information Service. USDA Report 85-3,1986)

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