Use in Prevention and Therapy

Ample intake of iodine (from seafood, iodized salt, or kelp supplements), especially during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood, will maintain production of thyroid hormone and prevent IDD. Inadequate iodine intake during childhood can impair learning ability and school performance.2 Hypothyroidism. If the iodine content of the diet is marginal or low, borderline hypothy-roidism may produce symptoms of fatigue, lassitude, and poor concentration. Replenishing thyroid stores of iodine can be...

Fluids

Water is a critical nutrient for the athlete in training and competition. Working muscles produce heat, and water is lost during exercise as the body attempts to keep cool and dissipates heat through sweating. Ninety minutes of strenuous exercise in a 70-kg athlete will produce sweat water losses of 1.5-3.0 kg, depending on air temperature and hu-midity.5 Excessive loss of body water (dehydration) interferes with the ability of the body to circulate oxygen and nutrients and reduces performance....

Diet Allergies

Food sensitivity can develop at any age but is particularly common in infants and young children. About 7-10 of children exhibit food allergies during their growing years.1 Colic in babies may be caused by sensitivity to a food -a common allergen is the protein in cow's milk. Adults can also develop sensitivity reactions, particularly when the immune system is knocked off-balance by stress, illness, food additives, and poor nutrition. Food allergies are often difficult to identify. Although...

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid

Most animals are able to synthesize all the vitamin C they need from dietary sugars humans, along with other primates, are among the few species of animals unable to synthesize the vitamin.1 Vitamin C plays an important role in the body's ability to handle physiologic stress during infection, injury, or chronic disease. While most animals are able to increase synthesis of vitamin C during times of stress, humans' strict dependence on dietary sources of the vitamin increases risk of deficiency...

References

Lecithin and cholin in human health and disease. Nutr Rev. 1994 52 327. 2. Zeisel SH. Choline and phosphatidylcholine. In ME Shils, JA Olson, M Shike, AC Ross, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Baltimore Williams & Wilkins 1999. 3. Zeisel SH, et al. Normal plasma choline responses to ingested lecithin. Neurology. 1980 30 1226. 4. Cohen BM, et al. Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults.JAMA. 1995 274 902. 5. Bierer LM, et al. Neurochemical correlates of...

Diet Ulcer

Dietary factors play a central role in ulcer frequency and severity.3,4 High intakes of sugar and refined carbohydrate can contribute to ul-cers.5 Milk, traditionally recommended to reduce acidity, actually produces only a transient rise in pH. This is often followed by a large rebound increase in acid secretion, which can worsen ulcers. Heavy alcohol consumption can cause erosions and ulceration of the stomach lining. Both decaffeinated and regular coffee can aggravate heartburn and ulcers....

Diet Hyperactivity

Breakfast is the crucial meal for children with ADHD. Skipping breakfast can cause drops in blood sugar that can trigger restlessness and irritability.16 Breakfasts high in protein and calcium have a calming influence in many pair concentration and learning ability at school.16 A nutritious breakfast restores energy stores used up overnight and maintains energy levels and ability to concentrate. children and improve learning capability in ADHD. Children may be sensitive to high amounts of...

Good Dietary Sources

Plant foods, unless they are enriched with the vitamin, contain no vitamin B12. Although our intestinal bacteria synthesize small amounts of vitamin B12-like compounds, these do not contribute to nutritional needs. Therefore, the only significant dietary sources are animal products meat, seafood, eggs, and milk products.5 Vitamin B12 is sensitive to heat and substantial amounts can be lost during food preparation for example, milk boiled for 2 minutes loses 30 of its vitamin B12. * excluding...

Diet Colds

See the recommendations on pages 196. Drinking plenty of hot fluids usually helps relieve congestion and clear secretions from the nose and throat. Nutrient Suggested daily dose Comments Zinc 15-30 mg to prevent colds. At the first sign Can effectively shorten the duration of a of a cold developing, 60-90 mg as 15 mg cold and reduce severity of symptoms17 doses fourto six times a day. Particularly effective in the form of tablets or lozenges that dissolve slowly in the mouth before swallowing...

The Role of Micronutrients in Prevention and Therapy

A remarkable shift in nutritional research has occurred in the past 50 years. In the first half of the 20th century, nutritional science focused on the discovery of vitamins and description of classic vitamin and mineral deficiency diseases, such as scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) and rickets (vitamin D deficiency). Widespread efforts were then made to fortify the food supply to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Grains were enriched with B vitamins and iron, salt was iodized, water was...

Micronutrients in the Diets of Industrialized Countries

In the USA and Western Europe, agriculture and the food industry produce enough to feed the population and export large quantities of food. Despite this, many people are poorly nourished they are oversupplied with foods rich in fat, protein, sugar, and salt, and under-supplied with complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary surveys have repeatedly found that micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in the industrialized countries. For example In many large cities in Europe,...

Herpes Simplex Infection

There are two main types of herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HSV type 1 infects the tissues around the lips and mouth (and rarely the eye), while HSV type 2 causes genital infections. Herpes produces recurrent clusters of small, painful blisters containing the virus. HSV infections are common it is estimated that 20-40 of the US population have recurrent infections of one or both forms. HSV type 1, in otherwise healthy adults, is not dangerous, but genital herpes occuring during pregnancy and...

Diet Cataracts

Most cataracts are caused by oxidative damage from lifetime exposure of the lens to light and radiation entering the eye. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E are a major defense against oxidative damage, and eating foods rich in these nutrients each day can reduce the risk of cataract (see Fig. 5.2).1 Regular consumption of galactose, found in the milk sugar lactose, may cause cataracts in people with inherited defects in galactose metabolism. In cases of an inability to metabolize galactose,...

Diet Obesity

Diets high in fat increase risk of weight gain. Protein and carbohydrate each contain 4 kcal of energy per gram, whereas fat has 9 kcal per gram. Moreover, dietary fat is efficiently stored as body fat, while protein and carbohy drate must first be converted to fat before storage, a more complex, less efficient process that requires energy. For the average person to lose about 0.5 kg of body fat per week, energy intake must be cut by about 500 kcal per day. Reducing caloric intake to between...

Variability in Micronutrient Requirements among Individuais

Professor RJ Williams, a chemist who played a key role in the discoveries of pantothenic acid and folic acid, emphasized the broad variability in micronutrient needs within the population. He developed the concept of biochemical individuality, a fundamental principle of micronutrient prevention and therapy, describing it as follows Each individual has a distinctive nutrient environment of his or her own, because while the list of nutrients needed by all of us may be the same, the respective...

The Major Degenerative Diseases

Good health late in life depends largely on avoiding the major degenerative diseases associated with getting old. These common disorders greatly accelerate the aging process -preventing these conditions would allow many to live a healthy life well past the age of 100. (A detailed discussion of the nutritional prevention and treatment of each of these important disorders can be found in later sections. Cancer. The chances of getting cancer double every 10 years after the age of 50. The...

Weight Gain

Normal, steady weight gain is a characteristic of a pregnancy that is progressing well. On average, a woman should gain approximately 0.45 kg week during the middle months of pregnancy, and about 0.4 kg week during the final 3 months. In well-nourished women, average total weight gain during pregnancy is about 10.5-12.5 kg.4 In the USA and Western Europe many mothers gain too much weight during pregnancy. This can harm both the baby and the mother. Excess weight gain increases the chance of...

Vegetables and Fruits

Vegetables and fruits are the cornerstones of a healthy diet. They are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, and fiber. Some, such as peas and corn, are also good sources of protein. Moreover, vegetables and fruits are generally inexpensive, contain no cholesterol, have little or no fat, and are low in calories. A high intake of vegetables, particularly of the Brassica family (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts) can sharply reduce the risk of cancer.10...

Meat Beef Pork Lamb and Poultry

Meat is exceptionally rich in iron, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12. Moreover, the micronu-trients in meat tend to be highly bioavailable. About 20 of the iron in meat is absorbed, compared to only 2-5 from most plant foods.23 In the average US diet, meat provides 70-75 of the total dietary zinc requirement and almost all of the vitamin B12 requirement. At the same time, meat is the major source of saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet of the industrialized countries. A high meat intake may...

The Difference between the Diet of Our Distant Ancestors and Our Diet Today

In the industrialized countries diets have changed remarkably over the past 100 years. This dietary shift, combined with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, is a major cause of many common diseases-heart disease, osteoporosis, tooth decay, high blood pressure, and diabetes. These disorders, so prevalent now, were rare before the 20th century. For thousands of years, humans adapted to and thrived on a diet radically different from today's diet.19,20 Looking at the diet of our ancestors provides...

Cereals Bread Wheat Bran and Wheat Germ

Whole grains are the best natural sources of complex carbohydrates and fiber. Populations eating large amounts of whole-grain products (e.g., Africa and Asia) have far fewer intestinal and bowel problems-such as constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, and colon cancer-compared to Western populations consuming mainly refined carbohydrates.30 In industrialized countries most grains are refined to make them quicker to cook, easier to chew, and storable for longer periods. However, refining...

Diet Healthy Eyes

To maintain good eyesight foods rich in vitamins A, C, E, riboflavin, selenium, and zinc should be consumed. All these nutrients are important for vision and are supplied by a balanced diet with generous amounts of fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, cantaloupe, oranges, and broccoli. Generous intake of antioxidant nutrients (see pp. 115) over a lifetime may help prevent cataract, the most common cause of impaired vision in older adults.1 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common...

Micronutrients Cataracts

May reduce further clouding of the lens5 Plays a crucial role in maintaining clarity of the lens Concentration of vitamin E in plasma Fig. 5.2 Vitamin Eand cataracts. Among 300 individuals taking supplemental vitamin E (> 400 mg day), the prevalence of cataract was 56 lower than in those not consuming supplements. Another study found the prevalence of nuclear cataract in 671 adults to be 48 less among individuals with higher plasma concentrations of vitamin E. (Adapted from Robertson JM, et...

Cysteine and Glutathione

The amino acid cysteine contains a sulfur group that allows it to function as an important antioxidant. Cysteine can function independently as an antioxidant, or it can be combined with glutamic acid and glycine in liver cells to form glutathione. Glutathione is a principal water-soluble antioxidant in cells and the blood.1 The dietary supply of cysteine is a primary determinant of how much gluta-thione is synthesized in the body, and supplements of cysteine can boost tissue levels of...

Diet Alcohol

Heavy alcohol intake causes inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines, reducing absorption of vitamins and minerals.4-6 It also damages the pancreas, which impairs production of digestive enzymes and further lowers nutrient absorption from foods. The liver is particularly vulnerable to alcohol - more than three drinks a day causes inflammation and accumulation of fat in the liver. This impairs liver function, reducing the ability to detoxify chemicals and drugs. Because the liver...

Micronutrients Learning Disabilities

Omega-3 fatty acids Vitamin B Complex Balanced supply of all the essential minerals and trace elements, including 5-10 mg iron 1-2 g EPA (as fish-oil capsules) Complete formula containing 10 mg thiamin and vitamin B6, 25 ig vitamin B12, and 0.4 mg folic acid Iron deficiency is common among children and adolescents, and deficiencies of iron and other minerals can reduce learning ability11-13 Critical for optimum brain development and mental function14 Deficiencies of the B vitamins,...

Micronutrients Psoriasis

As fish-oil capsules, 1.0-1.5 g EPA plus DHA As 1-4 g evening primrose oil 200 ig selenium, 50 mg zinc 8GGG ig vitamin A plus 2G ig vitamin D Can reduce proliferation and inflammation.12 Skin salves containing EPA can also be applied to patches. Take with at least 100 mg vitamin E Can reduce skin cell proliferation and inflammation. Take with at least 100 mg vitamin E Psoriasis is often linked with low blood levels of selenium. Zinc and selenium supplements can reduce skin inflammation,...

Diet Hypoglycemia

A diet plan to reduce reactive hypoglycemia should include 4 Avoiding simple sugars and refined carbohydrates (such as white flour and white rice). These produce rapid rises in blood glucose that trigger oversecretion of insulin. 4 Substituting foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber (which slow absorption of dietary sugars, reducing glycemic peaks during meals) such as vegetables, legumes, oats, and whole grains.16 4 Eating five to six small meals spaced throughout the day to provide a...

Diet Constipation

The primary cause of both constipation and diverticulosis are highly refined and processed diets that are low in dietary fiber. Dietary fiber passes into the colon intact and absorbs water - increasing the bulk of the stool and softening it.1 This stimulates peristalsis in the colon, pushing the stool forward more rapidly. Dietary fiber is found in large amounts in whole grains, corn, vegetables, fruits (dried prunes, apples, raisins, and figs), seeds, and legumes. Increasing intake of these...

Micronutrients Alcohol

Antioxidant supplement containing vitamins A, C, E, and zinc and selenium GLA Carnitine Niacinamide Vitamin B complex See pp. 115 for antioxidant nutrients and suggested doses Complete formula containing at least 25 mg vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6, 0.4-0.8 mg folic acid, and 25 ig vitamin B12 Alcohol can cause widespread cell damage and fat peroxidation in the liver.8 Supplements may help protect against oxidative damage. Vitamin C may help detoxify alcohol9 May help reduce damage to the liver...

Laboratory Diagnosis of Micronutrient Status

Levels lt 1.05 imol l indicate deficiency Measurement of vitamin A content of liver by biopsy Plasma beta-carotene Levels lt 0.07 imol g indicate deficiency Levels lt 50 imol l indicate deficiency Plasma retinol levels are maintained at the expense of liver vitamin A. Thus, plasma retinol levels begin to fall only when vitamin A deficiency is severe. Retinol-bind-ing protein transports retinol in the blood. Even with adequate body stores of vitamin A, if retinol-binding protein levels fall for...