HIV Infection in Children

An estimated 3 million children are infected with HIV, and an estimated 13% to 23% of these children develop an encephalitis characterized by nodules of microglial cells and multinucleated giant cells similar to those in infected adults. Perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations are prominent. In addition, vascular and parenchymal

FIGURE 6.18

Vascular mineralization in childhood HIV infection (HE).

FIGURE 6.18

Vascular mineralization in childhood HIV infection (HE).

mineralization occurs in the basal ganglia and white matter (Fig. 6.18).

Clinically, the encephalitis presents as a progressive encephalopathy manifested by delayed brain growth, microcephaly, motor deficits, language and learning disorders, seizures, and behavioral changes.

Congenital opportunistic infections are rare in infants, but acquired infections and primary CNS lymphoma may occur in severely immunosuppressed older children. Cerebrovascular complications, such as hemorrhages and infarcts, also may occur.

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