Bibliography

Biller, J., Mathews, K. D., & Love, B. B. (Eds.). (1994). Stroke in children and young adults. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Bogousslavsky, J., & Caplan, L. R. (Eds.). (2001). Stroke syndrome, 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Caplan, L. R. (1993). Stroke: a clinical approach, 2nd ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Fisher, M. (Ed.) (1994). Clinical atlas of cerebrovascular disorders. London: Mosby.

Garcia, J. H. (1992). The evolution of brain infarcts: a review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 51, 387-393.

Kalimo, H. (2005). Pathology & Genetics. Cerebrovascular Diseases. ISN Neuropath Press. Basel, Switzerland.

Kark, J. A., Posey, D. M., Schumacher, H. R., & Ruehle, C. J. (1987). Sickle-cell trait as a risk factor for sudden death in physical training. N Engl J Med 317, 781-787.

Nencini, P., Barriffi, C. M., Abbate, R., et al. (1992). Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies in young adults with cerebral ischemia. Stroke 23, 189-193.

Pullicino, P. M., Caplan, L. R., & Hommel, M. (Eds.). (1993). Cerebral small artery disease, Advances in Neurology, Vol. 62. New York: Raven Press.

Ruchoux, M. M., Maurage, C.A. (1997). CADASIL: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoen-cephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 56, 947-964.

Welch, K. M. A., Caplan, L. R., Reis, D. J., et al. (Eds.) (1997). Primer on cerebrovascular diseases. San Diego: Academic Press.

- REVIEW QU

1. A cerebral infarct can be caused by:

A. Thrombotic occlusion of extracranial cerebral arteries

B. Thrombotic occlusion of intracranial arteries

C. Atheromatous embolus

D. Severe hypotensive episode

E. Any of these

2. An infarct caused by an atheromatous embolus from the ICA is characterized by which of the following?

A. It is a common occurrence in the caudate.

C. It is often hemorrhagic.

D. It commonly occurs in the white matter.

E. It is common in the thalamus.

3. An acute infarct shows all of the following histological changes except:

A. Capillary hyperplasia

B. Infiltration with neutrophils

C. Red neurons

D. Oligodendroglial proliferation

E. Macrophage reaction

STIONS -

4. An infarct in the basis of the pons produces the "locked-in" syndrome, which is characterized by all of the following except:

A. Quadriplegia

B. Vertical gaze paralysis

C. Dysarthria

D. Dysphagia

E. Has basilar artery thrombosis as its cause

5. A large, old, MCA infarct on the CT scan appears as:

A. A hyperdense lesion

B. A hypodense lesion with an indented adjacent ventricle

C. A hypodense lesion with a dilated adjacent ventricle

D. A hyperdense lesion in the thalamus

E. A hypodense lesion in the thalamus

6. Concerning the clinical presentation of bilateral occipital infarcts, all of the following can apply except:

A. Blindness

B. Loss of pupillary light reflex

C. Confusion

D. Denial of blindness

E. Agitation

7. The most common site of a hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage is the:

A. Pons

B. Thalamus

C. Frontal lobe

D. Basal ganglia

E. Midbrain

8. Lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome) usually results from occlusion of the:

A. Basilar artery

B. Anterior superior cerebellar artery

C. Anterior spinal artery

D. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

E. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

9. The brain requires an average constant blood flow of:

10. Complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage include:

A. Hydrocephalus

B. Infarct

C. Cardiac arrhythmias

D. All of these

E. None of these

11. Concerning fibromuscular dysplasia, all of the following statements are correct except:

A. It affects small parenchymal arteries.

B. It is more common in middle-aged women.

C. It can cause arterial dissection.

D. It can cause an ischemic stroke.

E. It affects large arteries.

12. Hereditary arteriopathies include all of the following except:

A. Familial cerebral amyloid angiopathy

B. Thromboangiitis obliterans

C. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

D. Marfan's syndrome

E. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

13. Concerning subcortical arteriosclerotic enceph-alopathy, all of the following statements are correct except:

A. It presents with dementia.

B. MRI shows periventricular lesions.

C. MRI shows small and large white matter lesions.

D. It is a disease of the extracranial carotid arteries.

E. It is a disease of the small parenchymal arteries.

14. Stroke in the young can be caused by:

A. Vascular malformation

B. Homocystinuria

C. Cardiac diseases

D. All of these

E. None of these

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)

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