How do Binaural Beats Work
Although the research in the field of music therapy in epilepsy is limited, hundreds of peer-reviewed articles are available on the applications of music therapy to improve psychologic well-being. Several published clinical studies have shown that certain types of music can decrease seizure activity. Increased research into specifically how music is processed in the brain will soon help explain the anecdotal reports of this therapeutic effect in the treatment of epilepsy. Using various measurement tools, such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists are beginning to see precisely how this happens. Of particular note is a review of the research by John Hughes (1) that explored the Mozart Effect in persons with epilepsy. His article examined the patterning of the melodic line of Mozart's music and EEG measurements of epileptiform patterns. He suggested that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex resonates with the great...
Active music therapy in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients a matched control study. J Music Ther 2004 61 225-240. 2. Lengdobler H, Kiessling WR. Group music therapy in multiple sclerosis initial report of experience. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 1989 39 369-373. 3. Wiens ME, Reimer MA, Guyn HL. Music therapy as a treatment method for improving respiratory muscle strength in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis a pilot study. Rehabil Nurs 1999 24 74-80.
Patient rooms were designed with adolescent and young adult patients in mind 23 . An arcade-like recreation room with the latest in electronic games then available, foozball, air hockey, bumper pool table, jukebox, stereo system, large TV, and musical instruments, drew the patients' friends to visit them in the hospital. An extensive exercise and arts and crafts room, a classroom, and a library with books and magazines appealing to the age group, were provided. A well-stocked and equipped kitchen with dining room allowed patients or their parents to cook and dine together. There was no dress code. A laundry room was available to patients so that they could wear their own, not the hospital, clothes. A room designated as a quiet room was furnished for patients and their families who wanted to take some time off and not be disturbed by anyone, including medical personnel. A separate parents' lounge and room to stay when their child was critically ill allowed parents to be...
A cochlear implant is an electronic device designed to provide sound information for adults and children who have a sensorineural hearing loss in both ears and obtain limited benefit from appropriate binaural hearing aids. The first research on cochlear implants was conducted in France over thirty years ago. Since then, cochlear implant technology has evolved from a device with a single electrode (or channel) to systems that transmit more sound information through multiple electrodes (or channels). Those who used the cochlear implants confirm that the implants restored the hearing to a practically full extent, except in those who were born deaf. By now more than 15,000 people worldwide have received cochlear implants.
Music therapy has undergone limited investigation in multiple sclerosis (MS). One study of 20 people with MS found that music therapy improved self-esteem, depression, and anxiety (1). Another study of 225 people with MS reported that group music therapy may provide psychological support, improve depression and anxiety, and assist in coping with the disease (2). In a small investigational study of people with advanced MS, an indication was noted that music therapy improves respiratory muscle weakness (3). In people with other conditions, music therapy has produced beneficial effects. Music therapy may have emotional and cognitive benefits. It has been shown to decrease anxiety in some, but not all, studies. Limited studies suggest that music therapy decreases agitation and aggression in people with Alzheimer's disease. Music also may improve cognitive function it may facilitate learning in children and college students and may improve attention and concentration in people with...
The cost of an individual session of music therapy is based on geographic area, and may range from 40 to 100 per hour. At present, some insurance companies reimburse for prescribed music therapy if the procedure or service is covered under standard Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and the service provider has received prior approval by the insurance company's case manager to bill for music therapy services for the specific procedure or treatment. Some individuals who are unable to receive insurance coverage may choose to pay privately to participate in music therapy.
Music therapists must maintain their credentials on a regular basis through continuing education. Not all music therapists are knowledgeable about the effects of music on epilepsy. For this reason, it is always important to know what types of patients a therapist typically works with. This allows potential patients to understand their ability to work with the issues related to seizure disorders. Patients can contact the National Music Therapy Registry or the Certification Board for Music Therapists to check whether a music therapist is credentialed.
The supervision of a trained music therapist. Individuals are eligible to sit for the national exam offered by the Certification Board for Music Therapists upon completion of training. Music therapists who successfully complete the independently administered examination hold the music therapist-board certified credential (MT-BC). The National Music Therapy Registry (NMTR) serves qualified music therapy professionals with the following designations RMT, CMT, ACMT. These individuals have met the accepted educational and clinical training standards and are qualified to practice music therapy.
Should safe and effective CAM therapies be integrated into pain clinic services Are they cost effective A 2005 survey of 39 US academic health centers found that while 23 offered CAM services (particularly acupuncture, massage, dietary supplements, mind-body therapies, and music therapy), none had written policies concerning malpractice liability or credentialing practices 61 Nothing is currently known of the policy issues regarding integration of such practices in chronic pain centers in Canada. The mechanics of providing integrated (CAM plus conventional) care in Canada deserve to be further explored.
As its name implies, music therapy uses music to facilitate healing. This type of therapy has been practiced for thousands of years. It was used in some form in ancient Egypt and ancient Greece. Singing and drumming are also components of shamanic and Native American healing. In the United States, music therapy degrees were first granted in the 1940s. The National Association for Music Therapy established music therapy as an official discipline in 1950. Conventional medicine has increasingly recognized music therapy. About 5,000 professional and student music therapists practice in the United States.
In music therapy, people either create or listen to music. The appropriate form of therapy for a specific person is determined by a trained music therapist. Music therapy may be practiced on an individual or group basis. Music is also sometimes used to facilitate imagery (see the chapter Hypnosis and Guided Imagery ). The mechanism by which music therapy may be therapeutic is not known. Music is known to produce emotional responses. Because the brain pathways for music-associated emotional responses are different from those for verbal communication, music may be a novel way to stimulate emotions, facilitate emotional processing, and produce emotional change. Some of music's benefits may be related to music-induced relaxation. In addition, for people with movement difficulties such as incoordination or walking disorders, music therapy may elicit entrainment, which essentially means that moving to the music makes movements more rhythmic, regular, and efficient.
Music therapy, art therapy, movement dance therapy, or any therapeutic interventions involving the creative arts have rarely been evaluated in controlled trials, despite case studies (47) and uncontrolled investigations (48) describing their benefits for pain management in children. Most of the published studies comparing a creative arts intervention to a control have evaluated live or recorded music as a form of distraction for children undergoing acute procedural pain. Engaging in any task demanding attention, such as listening to music, probably limits a child's capacity to process pain, reduces pain sensitivity (49), and may thereby assist the child to habituate to repeated painful stimuli (50). In sum, music therapy may be considered a promising intervention for procedural pain if the 1995 Task Force criteria are loosely applied, but studies using other auditory stimuli as placebos and controlling for the effects of other factors, such as anxiety, are needed if this modality is...
The general public is becoming more familiar with the use of music therapy for a variety of medical and psychologic benefits, but many people are unaware that the therapeutic properties of music have been documented since the time of Socrates and Plato. An interest in the potential of music therapy and developing a professional practice arose in the United States after both World Wars, when musicians provided entertainment programs for the veterans who were being treated for the physical and emotional traumas of war. Medical staff took notice that the most withdrawn, and even some of the catatonic patients, exhibited a response when music was playing. The need to investigate the therapeutic aspects of music and train professionals to apply music for special popula tions led to the establishment of college curricula. The first was at Michigan State University, in 1944. The American Music Therapy Association, representing over 5,000 music therapists, was founded in 1998, as a union of...
Several methods for reducing stress levels are described in this book that do not involve medications, including music therapy. These therapies and techniques can be quite helpful. Although scientific studies of music therapy for people with epilepsy have not been conducted, it is reasonable to believe that the potential beneficial effects would be similar to those derived by people without epilepsy. Even so, studies would be helpful to know which people with epilepsy are most likely to benefit from music therapy, how much their stress and anxiety levels may improve, and whether other possible effects may occur, such as improved concentration and memory. We concur with the precautions Ms. Tomaino highlights. Patients whose seizures are triggered by music, strong beats, or tones should probably not undergo music therapy. Interested patients should seek out music therapists who are knowledgeable about epilepsy and know how to respond in the event of a seizure during treatment.
Listening to the Binaural Beat
When you were a kid were you fascinated by those dog whistles that you could blow, not hear but all the dogs in the vicinity would come running? The high pitch was something that only they could here, and though it seemed the dogs didn't seem to arrive in droves as they did in the movies, it was enough for perhaps your pet dog to prick up his ears before sliding back into sleep.