Vasculitis

FIGURE 18-1 Types of antibody-mediated diseases. Antibodies may bind specifically to tissue antigens (A), or they may be deposited as immune complexes that are formed in the circulation (B). In both cases, the deposited antibodies induce inflammation, leading to tissue injury.

Opsonization and phagocytosis

Antibody

Complement -activation

C3b receptor

FIGURE 18-2 Effector mechanisms of antibody-mediated disease. A, Antibodies opsonize cells and may activate complement, generating complement products that also opsonize cells, leading to phagocytosis of the cells through phagocyte Fc receptors or C3 receptors. B, Antibodies recruit leukocytes by binding to Fc receptors or by activating complement and thereby releasing byproducts that are chemotac-tic for leukocytes. C, Antibodies specific for cell surface receptors for hormones or neurotrans-mitters may stimulate the activity of the receptors even in the absence of the hormone (left panel) or may inhibit binding of the neurotransmitter to its receptor (right panel). TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Phagocytosed cell

Antigen

Opsonized cell

Phagocyte Fc receptor

Phagocytosed cell

Phagocytosis

B Complement- and Fc receptor-mediated inflammation

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