Tnf

only with local administration

sarcoma, melanoma (isolated limb perfusion)

septic shock syndrome

gm-csf

No

In routine use to promote bone marrow recovery

Bone pain

GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.

expression on tumor cells, which makes them more susceptible to killing by CTLs (see Chapter 10). Other cytokines, such as TNF and IFN-y, are effective anti-tumor agents in animal models, but their use in patients is limited by serious toxic side effects. Hematopoietic growth factors, including GM-CSF and G-CSF are used in cancer treatment protocols to shorten periods of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia after chemotherapy or autologous bone marrow transplantation.

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