FIGURE 4-1 Cellular locations of pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. Some pattern recognition molecules of the TLR family (see Fig. 4-2) are expressed on the cell surface, where they may bind extracellular pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Other TLRs are expressed on endosomal membranes and recognize nucleic acids of microbes that have been phagocytosed by cells. Cells also contain cytoplasmic sensors of microbial infection (discussed later in the chapter), including the NLR family of proteins, which recognize bacterial peptidoglycans, RIG-like receptors, which bind viral RNA, and plasma membrane lectin-like receptors that recognize fungal glycans. Cyto-plasmic receptors that recognize products of damaged cells as well as some microbes are shown in Fig. 4-4.

Fungal polysaccharide Lectin

Bacterial cell wall lipid

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