receptor receptor receptor

Distribution of receptors

Nonclonal: identical receptors on all cells of the same lineage

Clonal: clones of lymphocytes with distinct specificities express different receptors

Discrimination of self Yes; healthy host cells are not recognized or they may and non-self express molecules that prevent innate immune reactions yes; based on elimination or inactivation of self-reactive lymphocytes; may be imperfect (giving rise to autoimmunity)

TABLE 4-2 Examples of PAMPs and DAMPs

Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns

Microbe Type

Nucleic acids

Virus, bacteria


Pilin flagellin

Bacteria Bacteria

Cell wall lipids

Lipoteichoic acid

Gram-negative bacteria Gram-positive bacteria


Mannan Dectin glucans

Fungi, bacteria Fungi

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns

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