Scavenger Receptors

Scavenger receptors comprise a structurally and functionally diverse collection of cell surface proteins that were originally grouped on the basis of the common characteristic of mediating the uptake of oxidized lipo-proteins into cells. Some of these scavenger receptors, including SR-A and CD36, are expressed on macrophages and mediate the phagocytosis of microorganisms. In addition, CD36 functions as a coreceptor in TLR2/6 recognition and response to bacterially derived lipoteichoic acid and diacylated lipopeptides. There is a wide range of molecular structures that bind to each scavenger receptor, including LPS, lipoteichoic acid, nucleic acids, P-glucan, and proteins. The significance of scavenger receptors in innate immunity is highlighted by increased susceptibility to infection in gene knockout mice lacking the receptors and by the observations that several micro-bial pathogens express virulence factors that block scavenger receptor-mediated recognition and phagocytosis.

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