FIGURE 14-9 Peripheral tolerance in B cells.
B cells that encounter self antigens in peripheral tissues become anergic or die by apoptosis. In some situations, recognition of self antigens may trigger inhibitory receptors that prevent B cell activation.
the cytoplasmic tail of CD22 are phosphorylated by Lyn, and this inhibitory receptor then recruits SHP-1, thus attenuating B cell receptor signaling. However, it is not known when inhibitory receptors such as CD22 are engaged and what ligands they recognize.
Much has been learned about the mechanisms of tolerance in T and B lymphocytes, largely from the use of animal models such as genetically modified mice. Application of this knowledge to understanding the mechanisms of tolerance to different self antigens in normal individuals and to defining why tolerance fails, giving rise to autoimmune diseases, is an area of active investigation.
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