Now that we have introduced the major components of the immune system and their properties, it is useful to summarize the principles of immune responses to different types of microbes. Such a summary will be a foundation for the topics that are discussed throughout the book. The immune system has to combat many and diverse microbes. As we shall see shortly, immune responses to all infectious pathogens share some common features, and responses to different classes of these microbes may also have unique features. How these adaptive immune reactions are initiated, orchestrated, and controlled are the fundamental questions of immunology. We start with a discussion of the innate immune response.
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