In addition to killing phagocytosed microbes, macrophages serve many other functions in defense against infections (Fig. 4-13). Several of these functions are mediated by the cytokines the macrophages produce. We have already described how TNF, IL-1, and chemokines made by phagocytes enhance the inflammatory reactions
FIGURE 4-13 Effector functions of macrophages. Macrophages are activated by microbial products such as LPS and by NK cell-derived IFN-y (described earlier in the chapter). The process of macrophage activation leads to the activation of transcription factors, the transcription of various genes, and the synthesis of proteins that mediate the functions of these cells. In adaptive cell-mediated immunity, macrophages are activated by stimuli from T lymphocytes (CD40 ligand and IFN-y) and respond in essentially the same way (see Chapter 10, Fig. 10-7).
Effector functions of activated macrophages
Molecules produced in activated macrophages
to microbes and bring in more leukocytes and plasma proteins. Activated macrophages also produce growth factors for fibroblasts and endothelial cells that participate in the remodeling of tissues after infections and injury. The role of macrophages in cell-mediated immunity is described in Chapter 10.
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