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AN OVERVIEW OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, 140

Modular Signaling Proteins and Adaptors, 142

THE IMMUNE RECEPTOR FAMILY, 143

General Features of Antigen Receptor Signaling, 144 The T Cell Receptor Complex and T Cell Signaling, 145 The Structure of the T Cell Receptor for Antigen, 146 Signal Initiation by the T Cell Receptor, 149 The Role of the CD4 and CD8 Coreceptors in T Cell Activation, 149 Activation of Tyrosine Kinases and a Lipid Kinase During T Cell Activation, 149

Recruitment and Modification of Adaptor Proteins, 151 Formation of the Immunologic Synapse, 151 MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways in T Lymphocytes, 153 Calcium- and PKC-Mediated Signaling Pathways in T Lymphocytes, 154 Activation of Transcription Factors That Regulate T Cell Gene Expression, 156

Modulation of T Cell Signaling by Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, 157 Costimulatory Receptors of T cells, 158

THE B LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN RECEPTOR COMPLEX, 159

Structure of the B Cell Receptor for Antigen, 159 Signal Initiation by the B Cell Receptor, 159 Role of the CR2/CD21 Complement Receptor as a Coreceptor for B Cells, 160

Signaling Pathways Downstream of the B Cell Receptor, 161

THE ATTENUATION OF IMMUNE RECEPTOR SIGNALING, 162

Inhibitory Receptors in NK Cells, B Cells, and T Cells, 162 E3 Ubiquitin Ligases and the Degradation of Signaling Proteins, 163

CYTOKINE RECEPTORS AND SIGNALING, 164

Classes of Cytokine Receptors, 164 JAK-STAT Signaling, 167 Pathways of NF-kB Activation, 168

SUMMARY, 170

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