FIGURE 9-8 Changes in surface molecules after T cell activation. A, The approximate kinetics of expression of selected molecules after activation of T cells by antigens and costimulators are shown. The illustrative examples include a transcription factor (c-Fos), a cytokine (IL-2), and surface proteins. These proteins are typically expressed at low levels in naive T cells and are induced by activating signals. CTLA-4 (not shown) is induced 1 to 2 days after activation. The kinetics are estimates and will vary with the nature of the antigen, its dose and persistence, and the type of adjuvant. B, The major functions of selected surface molecules are shown and described in the text.

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