General Features Of Humoral Immune Responses

The earliest studies of adaptive immunity were devoted to analyses of serum antibodies produced in response to microbes, toxins, and model antigens. Much of our current understanding of adaptive immune responses and the cellular interactions that take place during such responses has evolved from studies of antibody production. We begin with a summary of some of the key features of B cell activation and antibody production.

• The activation of B cells results in their proliferation, leading to clonal expansion, followed by

Recognition phase

Helper T cells, other stimuli

Antigen Resting" IgM+, IgD+ mature B cell

Helper T cells, other stimuli

Activated B cell

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