Functions of TH2 Cells

Th2 cells stimulate IgE- and eosinophil-mediated reactions that serve to eradicate helminthic infections (Fig. 10-9). Helminths are too large to be phagocytosed by neutrophils and macrophages and may be more resistant to the microbicidal activities of these phagocytes than are most bacteria and viruses. Therefore, special mechanisms are needed for defense against helminthic infections. TH2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which work cooperatively to eradicate these infections. We first describe the properties of these cytokines and then their roles in host defense.

Cytokines Produced by TH2 Cells

The functions of TH2 cells are mediated by IL-4, which induces IgE antibody responses; IL-5, which activates eosinophils; and IL-13, which has diverse actions.

Classically activated macrophage (M1)

ROS, NO, lysosomal enzymes

IL-1, IL-12, IL-23, chemokines

Microbial TLR-ligands IFN-y

ROS, NO, lysosomal enzymes

IL-1, IL-12, IL-23, chemokines

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