The cells that serve specialized roles in innate and adaptive immune responses are phagocytes, dendritic cells, antigen-specific lymphocytes, and various other leukocytes that function to eliminate antigens. The cells of the immune system were introduced briefly in Chapter 1. Here we describe the morphology and functional characteristics of phagocytes, other leukocytes, APCs, and lymphocytes and how these cells are organized in lymphoid tissues. The numbers of some of these cell types in the blood are listed in Table 2-1. Although most of these cells are found in the blood, their responses to microbes are usually localized to tissues and are generally not reflected in changes in the total numbers of circulating leukocytes.
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