Antigen binding to and crosslinking of membrane Ig

Activation of B lymphocytes

Changes in B cells

FIGURE 11-6 Functional responses induced by antigen-mediated cross-linking of the BCR complex. Antigen-induced cross-linking of the B cell antigen receptor induces several cellular responses including proliferation, expression of new cell surface molecules including costimulators and cytokine receptors, and altered migration within the lymph node of the cells as a result of the expression of CCR7.

Increased expression of cytokine receptors (e.g., IL-4 receptors, BAFF-R)

Increased expression of CCR7 and migration from follicle to T cell areas

FIGURE 11-6 Functional responses induced by antigen-mediated cross-linking of the BCR complex. Antigen-induced cross-linking of the B cell antigen receptor induces several cellular responses including proliferation, expression of new cell surface molecules including costimulators and cytokine receptors, and altered migration within the lymph node of the cells as a result of the expression of CCR7.

FIGURE 11-7 Sequence of events in humoral immune responses to T cell-dependent protein antigens. Immune responses are initiated by the recognition of antigens by B cells and helper T cells. The activated lymphocytes migrate toward one another and interact, resulting in B cell proliferation and differentiation. Restimulation of B cells by helper T cells in extrafollicular sites leads to early isotype switching and short-lived plasma cell generation. The late events occur in germinal centers and include somatic mutation and the selection of high-affinity cells (affinity maturation), additional isotype switching, memory B cell generation, and the generation of long-lived plasma cells.

FIGURE 11-7 Sequence of events in humoral immune responses to T cell-dependent protein antigens. Immune responses are initiated by the recognition of antigens by B cells and helper T cells. The activated lymphocytes migrate toward one another and interact, resulting in B cell proliferation and differentiation. Restimulation of B cells by helper T cells in extrafollicular sites leads to early isotype switching and short-lived plasma cell generation. The late events occur in germinal centers and include somatic mutation and the selection of high-affinity cells (affinity maturation), additional isotype switching, memory B cell generation, and the generation of long-lived plasma cells.

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