Meditation Mastery Secrets

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Meditation Mastery Secrets Summary

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Different Types of Meditation

Many types and subtypes of meditation are possible, usually depending on the mode of induction. The author knows of no types of meditation that are defined on the basis of induced responses. Sometimes researchers define the depth of meditation on the basis of physiologic responses. Meditation may be induced by a variety of techniques, most of which involve body immobility and repetitious mental exercises. Sometimes the exercises are based on mantras, the private repetition of a single word or phrase. Some involve inward concentration on the stream of consciousness and enhanced awareness of bodily sensation (2). Yogic meditation often involves concentration on a single point to exclude all thoughts associated with everyday life (3). Word Repetition Meditation Using a Mantra The most common Indian method of meditation is word repetition the subject (i) adopts a comfortable posture (ii) visualizes his breathing and (iii) concentrates on repetition (silently or audibly) of a word, object,...

Physiologic Responses of Meditation

During yogic meditation, Zen, or TM , various physiologic experiences accompany physiologic changes (9,12-18). On two occasions, Anand (12) studied an expert yogi performing control over autonomic functions through meditation inside an airtight box first for 8 hours and then for 10 hours. During his stay in the box, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide output, heart rate, respiration, and body temperature were recorded, Dr. Deepak has written a detailed chapter on the theory and practice of meditation, as related to yoga (see Chapter 11 by Dr. Pacia). Dr. Deepak outlines the types of meditation and describes the effects of meditation on bodily functions and brain waves. He then describes a study of meditation and epilepsy that was performed in India. The results showed that patients with epilepsy who practiced meditation had a marked reduction in seizure frequency compared with patients randomized to a control group. Considering that the potential side effects of meditation are...

Psychophysiologic Changes during Meditation

The mental component of meditation is a mind that is concentrated, at attention, and essentially blank of distracting or disturbing thoughts. Both the physiologic and mental relaxation produced by meditation helps manifest positive change (20). Most of the techniques used for meditation center on the concept that meditation works to gain control over the subject's attentional process. Gaining mastery over attention is difficult because of the natural tendency to constantly shift from one point of focus to another. Thus, continuous demand on attention and concentration is a prerequisite for the induction of meditation. Van Nuys (26) measured attention in meditation and hypnotizability. He concluded that only attention measures of the meditation correlated with hypnotizability. The results also suggested that good concentration is a necessary condition for hypnotizability. Thus, it may be logically deduced that the capacity to concentrate or the level of concentration achieved...

Meditation as an Intervention in Epilepsy

Numerous research papers advocate meditation to improve a variety of cardiovascular and psychologic illnesses. Stress-related disorders have been the chief target for meditation. reduce anxiety and stress. Excellent studies by Sterman, beginning in the 1970s (27), suggested and then proved that by modifying one's own specific EEG rhythm using EEG biofeedback, uneven brain wave activity in epilepsy could be enhanced and the seizure threshold raised (28). Thus, meditation and biofeedback can have a normalizing influence on EEG patterns. Later findings, however, confirmed that these EEG abnormalities could also be reduced using antiepileptic medication. Several studies in India proved that meditation enhances alpha brain wave activity (waves occurring 8 to 13 times a second), represented by a relaxed, awake state. Also, patients with epilepsy experience a reduced occurrence of alpha waves and an increased occurrence of lower frequency waves when they are resting. The All India Institute...

Meditation Training Program

Any comfortable posture may be adopted for the practice of meditation, according to patient preference lying down, partially lying down, or sitting. Any word may be chosen for repetition to induce meditation however, the word should not seem disagreeable or inappropriate to the patient. We presented a long list of words to the patients and asked them to choose any one. The words included Om, Narayan, Allah, Mohammed, Christ, Many, God, One, Yam, Two, Krishna, Sam, Jolly, Ek, Jane, Do, Shiva, Peace, Namah, and Ma. The instructor follows these guidelines to facilitate meditation Communicate with the subject. Give time signals by saying yes every 5 minutes for 20 minutes last signal marks the end of meditation. Say stop at the end. Monitoring of these 5-minute periods is for the initial session only. Successful meditation using the word-repetition model implies holding the meditative state without intrusions, finally leading to a state of physical and mental relaxation. We gave patients...

Mechanisms of Meditation

In general, the results of the AIIMS study agree with the original theories about the relationships between intervention by meditation and alteration in seizure picture, along with its EEG correlates. The ability of patients to concentrate (nonanalytic attending) and the ability to relax, achieved through meditation, appear to bring improvement in the clinical and EEG profiles of patients with epilepsy. The mechanism of meditation response for mediating antiepileptic response largely remains a matter of speculation. Areas in the brain that generate and modulate seizure activity have been identified. Gale (31) has done extensive studies in this direction and suggests that two brain areas, the substantia nigra and area tempastas, are connected to control of seizures. Circuits involving the thalamus and substantia nigra and or limbic system and pyriform cortex may influence the activity of target areas (the seizure focus), thus modifying their activities. Meditation induces relaxation...

Instructions for Meditation

Adopt the same posture for every session of meditation. 4. Meditate for 20 minutes daily. Remember that the duration of meditation should not be less than 20 minutes. You may use an alarm clock, watch, or timer to time it exactly, or request that someone give you an indication after 20 minutes.

Assessment of Effects of Meditation

Meditation practice started on_ Posture_ Previous experience in meditation_ 3. Did you feel relaxed after meditation _ I thank the late Professor S.K. Manchanda, who initiated me into this study. I acknowledge the help of Professor M.C. Maheshwari, who assisted me in acquiring patients for this study, and Dr. Padam Singh, who assisted in statistical analysis. I express deep gratitude to the late Professor Baldev Singh for explaining the complexities of meditation, epilepsy, and EEG. I also thank Shree Dharmananda Jee of Adhyatma Sadhana Kendra for providing healthy people who had long-term meditation experience for our research. 1. Puttick E. Meditation. Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. 4. Naranjo C, Ornstein RE. On the Psychology of Meditation. New York Viking, 1971. 9. Wallace RK. Physiologic effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 1970 167 1751-1754. 15. Matsuoka S. Spectral EEG mapping in meditation. Proceedings of the Satellite Symposium on States of Consciousness. World Congress...


For thousands of years, philosophers have believed humans can attain higher states of consciousness through meditative techniques. Meditation is a form of religious or spiritual contemplation it forms the basis of most Eastern religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism. It is comparable to prayer in the Christian, Islamic, and Jewish traditions. The difference between prayer and Eastern meditation is that prayer is a petition to, or dialogue with God meditation is a detached observation of one's own mind and its processes. The word meditation is derived from the Latin meditari, meaning contemplate. In the Indian context, the appropriate Sanskrit word is dhya'na (concentrated meditation). This became Chan in China, and Zen in Japan (1). Meditation techniques developed extensively in the East and became a major element in religion, with a tendency to make them a way of life for maintaining physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. In the Western world, however, the practice...


editation is a type of mind-body therapy, a class of therapies that also includes biofeedback, hypnosis, and guided imagery. For thousands of years, meditation has been practiced in some form, especially in the context of religious practice. Also, meditation is one of several components of some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, including Ayurveda (which uses transcendental meditation or TM) and traditional Chinese medicine. Meditation is a way of producing the relaxation response, which has been described extensively by Dr. Herbert Benson at the Harvard Medical School and The Mind Body Medical Institute. The relaxation response is a state of relaxation associated with decreased anxiety, muscle relaxation, and lowering of blood pressure. It is believed to be the opposite of the physiologic response known as the fight-or-flight response, characterized by the activation or stimulation of multiple body processes, such as increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and...

AIIMS Study on Drug Resistant Epilepsy

To observe the effect of meditation on epilepsy, during the 1990s, researchers at AIIMS used well-defined selection criteria to choose 21 patients with epilepsy. These patients had seizures that were drug-resistant, and they had no other symptomatic illness. The diagnosis was confirmed by two senior neurologists. The details of illness were collected from patients using a seizure diary daily cards, and information about their seizures was also collected from family members. The patients were randomly divided into two groups a treatment group of 11 that would practice meditation and a control group of nine (one dropped out). Patients in both groups visited the laboratory monthly and their baseline data were collected for 6 months to 1 year. The data included details of seizure frequency and duration, EEG details, and serum drug levels. These patients continued to receive their prescribed medications because they were drug-resistant. Researchers told patients in the meditation...

Benefits and Precautions

Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention high-resolution EEG investigation of meditation. Neurosci Lett 2001 310(1) 57-60. 25. Lou HC, Kjaer TW, Friberg L, et al. A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness. Hum Brain Mapp 1999 7(2) 98-105.

Essay 81 Origin Stories

Before time there was no heaven or earth. A vast dark ocean washed upon the shores of nothingness. A giant cobra floated in the waters, with the Lord Vishnu asleep in its coils. From far below, a humming sound, Om, began. This sound soon filled the emptiness with energy. As dawn broke, from Vishnu's navel grew a beautiful lotus flower. In the middle of the flower sat Vishnu's servant, Brahma. Vishnu ordered Brahma to create the world, and then he vanished. Brahma split the lotus flower into three parts. He formed one part into the heavens, another into the earth, and from the third he fashioned the sky. Brahma then created trees and plants of all kinds. Next he created animals, insects, birds, and fish.

Studies in MS and Other Conditions

No studies have formally evaluated the effects of meditation in a large number of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). In one study of 40 people, nine of whom had MS, meditation along with imagery decreased both anxiety and physical complaints during the physical rehabilitation process (1). Other research studies have examined meditation effects on symptoms that may occur with MS but have involved people with conditions other than MS. It has been found that meditation may improve stress, anxiety, depression, and various types of pain. Although difficult to study formally, feelings of control, empowerment, and self-esteem may develop through meditation. Progressive muscle relaxation, a specific process sometimes used in meditation, may improve insomnia. Interestingly, meditation and other relaxation methods may produce changes in immune function. Various immune-system changes have been described. The precise effects and their impact on MS are not fully understood at this time. An...

Practical Information

Meditation may be done independently by following techniques described in books such as The Relaxation Response. Classes in meditation techniques often are available through hospitals, health clubs, and community centers. Individual classes are typically 30 to 90 minutes in length and cost 60 to 150 per session. Group sessions are 60 minutes and cost 15 to 35. If meditation is pursued, it is important to keep in mind that it often does not have immediate effects. It may take several weeks or months of practice to achieve significant relaxation.

Aids Palliative Care And Death And Dying

Different methods of comfort care such as pastoral care, hypnosis, music, relaxation, meditation, writing, and art can be incorporated with much success, and these methods need to be integrated and offered to persons during the entire course of their illness on a routine basis (Cohen, 1999). Depression, anxiety, pain, and other mental health disorders need to be addressed with both psychotherapy and pharmaco-therapy using multiple models, including crisis, individual, group, and family therapy, over the entire spectrum of illness. Integration of spiritual care has been shown to provide comfort and solace to persons suffering with cancer (Saunders, 1988 Jacox et al., 1994). Attempts to provide these interventions across the spectrum of HIV illness will improve the seamless attention given to the associated suffering and distress.

Background and Principles

Finally, several barriers that impede successful transition have been identified through focus group survey methodology. Barriers on the part of providers may include time restrictions, lack of knowledge or training, financial reimbursement and letting go of the established relationship with the child 10, 14, 23-26 . Obstacles to transition for the patient may include dependent behavior, immaturity, lack of support systems, lack of trust in the caregiver, and noncompli-ance. For the family, the need for control, emotional dependency, overprotectiveness, and lack of trust in the prospective adult care providers may also present barriers to transition 25 .

Attention and consciousness

The CODAM model allows Taylor and his colleagues to arrive at several important conclusions. For example, they explain the meditational processes aimed at achieving a state of 'pure consciousness' found in several Eastern religions. They argue that advanced forms of meditation force the attentional corollary discharge to block sensory input and turn to attending only to itself. Another application is the explanation of the at-tentional blink which occurs when someone is asked to attend to several objects presented in succession to one another. Schizophrenia, inattention blindness and blindsight are also approached through the CODAM model.

Cognitive Behavioral and Nonpharmacological Treatments

Tity is considered unimportant, patients are less likely to manifest overt resistance. Rather than emphasize powerlessness, this approach assumes that people have within themselves the capacity to change. Although the efficacy of MET MI for cocaine abusers has yet to be proven, it would appear that its unique focus on readiness should, at minimum, help patients to engage in other forms of therapy. In addition, a few studies have begun to support the use of MET MI for treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. In a small study examining 27 female workers with concurrent cocaine or heroin dependence, MI significantly reduced the women's cocaine use (Yahne, Miller, Irvin-Vitela, & Tonigan, 2002). Similarly, compared to patients who only underwent a detoxification program, patients who also received MI were more likely to be abstinent from cocaine following detoxification and demonstrated higher abstinence rates throughout the following relapse prevention treatment. In addition, MI was...

Caveats in Interpreting Electrophysiologic Data in Substance Abuse Research

Perhaps the most important aspect regarding the usefulness of EEG and ERP measures in substance abuse research is the issue of specificity. Namely, whether the electrophysiological changes observed are unique to the specific drug or condition tested. Most of the data available to date suggests that EEG and ERP measures have limited diagnostic specificity. For instance, acute administration of either ethanol, cocaine or marihuana all result in significant increases in alpha activity (Lukas et al., 1986, 1990, 1991, 1995), these increases are not only indistinguishable from each other but are also similar to those observed during transcendental meditation (Lindsley, 1952 Brown, 1970 Wallace, 1970). Given the association between alpha activity and pleasurable states, these findings suggest that the drug-induced increases in alpha activity represent a neurophysiologic response associated with reinforcement in general. Even though electrophysiological measures are not always specific...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

The CBT program includes some or all of the following modalities relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, meditation, aerobic exercise, stretching, pacing of activities, and patient and family education. The majority of published studies showed CBT to have some benefit (178-182). Some of the studies took place in interdisciplinary pain programs (183,184). Finally, improvement was noted after periods of six months (183) to 30 months (181).

Studies of MS and Other Conditions

Variable results have been obtained in studies of the effects of prayer on other medical conditions. Anxiety and depression, which may occur with MS, may be reduced in those who pray. For anxiety, a therapeutic effect of prayer could be due to the fact that prayer, like meditation, elicits relaxation (see the chapter on Meditation ).

Youth Smoking Cessation

Sussman, Dent, and Lichtman (2000) designed an innovative school quit-smoking program that featured interactive activities, such as games and talk shows, alternative medicine techniques (i.e., yoga, relaxation, and meditation), and behavioral strategies for smoking cessation. Two hundred and fifty-nine students enrolled in the program at 12 schools and another 76 students served as standard care controls (smoking status surveyed at baseline and at 3 months). Objective measures of cigarette smoking were used. Elective class credit and class release time were offered for participation in the program.

Social And Selfhelp Movements

Religiomania has long served as a cure for dipsomania and narcotomania. Opium addicts in Asia have gone to Buddhist monasteries in the hope that worship, meditation, or clerical asceticism would cure them, which it sometimes did (Westermeyer, 1982). Many Latin Americans and Native Americans with high rates of alcoholism have abandoned Catholicism and Anglicanism in favor of abstinence-prescribing fundamentalist Christian sects and the Native American Church (Albaugh & Anderson, 1974 Hippler, 1973). Children raised in these sects are taught the importance of lifelong abstinence from alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Despite this childhood socialization, those leaving these sects as adults can develop substance use disorders. Thus, the effects of various religions in preventing substance abuse disorders appear to persist only as long as one is actively affiliated with the group.

What Is Complicated Grief

Until the past few decades, ideas about grief were dominated by psychoanalytic thinking that included several basic assumptions. Effective grief was considered to require a period of emotionally intense grief work that progressed to resolution. If grief work was not done, a delayed grief reaction could be expected. If grief work was not effective, the bereaved individual would experience unresolved, incomplete, or pathological grief. There was a belief that one could not move on until the attachment to the deceased was relinquished, a process often referred to as letting go. The origin of a pathological grief reaction was considered to reside in an ambivalent relationship to the deceased. Data were not available when these ideas were formulated. Now that empirical evidence is accumulating, many of the findings challenge these basic assumptions. other data challenge the idea that detachment from the deceased (i.e., letting go ) is the optimal outcome (Field, Nichols, Holen, & Horowitz,...

Asad Ansaria Adriana Weinbergb

Glycoproteins of which glycoprotein H (gH) is thought to meditate viral entry and virus-induced cell fusion. HHV-6 utilizes gH to bind to a wide variety of cells through the widely distributed cell surface CD46 receptor but preferentially CD4 + T lymphocytes (Mori et al., 2002, 2003 Santoro et al., 2003). Molecular, biological and immunological differences between various isolates have resulted in two distinct variants A (prototype strains are U1102 and GS) and B (prototype strains are Z29 and HST). Further comparison of the genome of HHV-6A and 6B sequences indicates between 95 and 98 homology in the middle portion of the genome with subsequent sequential decrease in the region of termini and immediate-early-1 region where divergence reaches 31 at the nucleotide level (Dominguez et al., 1999 Isegawa et al., 1999). Because of considerable differences, some researchers feel that they should be classified as two separate viruses (Ablashi et al., 1991 Aubin et al., 1993). Persistent...

Chronic Pain

Likewise, cognitive-behavioral strategies are also valuable and are indicated for all pain problems, regardless of origin (104,105). These strategies are often helpful during acute pain suffering, and there are limited data on their efficacy for chronic pain, although anecdotally they seem to be effective. Strategies include meditation, distraction, use of biofeedback, and hypnosis. They may be taught by the primary care provider, a psychologist, or another skilled individual. If possible, this should occur during relatively pain-free periods and not in the middle of severe pain episodes.

EEG Studies

Okuma (22) saw that the alpha waves of Zen practitioners increased remarkably with the progress of their meditation, even if their eyes were open. From EEG mapping during Zen practice, Matsuoka (15) reported specific findings. EEG changes could be classified into four states the appearance of alpha waves, an increase of alpha amplitudes with wide distribution, a decrease of alpha waves, and the short-lived appearance of theta waves. These findings possibly indicate specific changes of consciousness. Something more complex and more central than simple relaxation happens during meditation (23-25). The possible central mechanisms could be a cognitive manipulation of neural mechanisms. The reasons for the existence of the two central mechanisms appear to be emanating from the instructions given for induction of meditation and the subjective responses reported by long-term practitioners. In reality, meditation may use some complex mechanisms to induce the effect quickly and with more depth.

Data Analysis

We collected data continuously on every visit and recorded it carefully. Several previous studies using behavior intervention have observed the effect of meditation on a short-term basis. We observed these effects in our long-term research. Subjective responses to meditation were measured on every patient visit (using Appendix II) and entered into master tables from which corresponding monthly seizure data were calculated. Later (after 7 or 8 months), bimonthly data were collected. We measured attention span and intrusion rate on every visit and calculated the averages for every month. From the average values, the averages for 6 months were also calculated. In 29 normal adults (including the nine long-term meditators), we recorded EEG frequency analysis at rest and during meditation. We compared healthy subjects and patients (before and during intervention), between patient's initial condition and condition during intervention, and between patients in the training group and controls.

Response Variability

Meditation has been associated with variable physiologic responses. The reason for this variability may be twofold. First, the definition of meditation or the method of induction may have varied greatly. Second, the responses may have had different threshold levels of activation. The latter point was discussed by Banquet (30), who found different kinds of power spectra, which he correlated with different depths of meditation. A literature review suggests that the views on meditation as a therapeutic modality have always been uncertain. The well-documented and important accompanying aspect of meditation is relaxation (20) and, thus, the use of meditation for stress-induced disorders is advocated. Several meta-analyses, however, suggest conflicting responses to meditation intervention for various disorders. The basic problem with meditation is identifying exactly what aspect of the meditation program the patient responds to. Several other reasons exist for the variability observed in...


Meditation is a simple and effective technique, but to use its full potential, certain steps should be assured. The basic instructions of meditation are easy, but these should be given after a good deal of explanation, preferably by an expert. If an expert teacher is not available, the teacher should be someone who has experienced the beneficial effect of meditation, either in terms of physiologic changes or psychologic manifestations. A certain receptivity is required for meditation, similar to that required for other behavioral techniques, such as hypnosis and biofeedback. Some amount of healthy skepticism is also useful, but the seeker should keep an open mind. At times, group practice, in which individuals learn to share their experiences, is more effective. For a few, meditation can provoke the problems it is supposed to defeat fear, anxiety, confusion, depression, and self-doubt. During the first 10 minutes of meditation, as one unwinds into a state of deep relaxation, it is...

Yoga and Epilepsy

Yoga has developed in India over the past 5,000 years. It has exploded in popularity as a means to maintain general health, to reduce stress, and to complement standard medical therapy. Yoga literally means to yoke together or to make whole. There are several types of yoga, but the type most applicable to complementary medicine is hatha yoga or versions of it. The main components of hatha yoga are meditation, controlled breathing, and physical postures. Although elements of yoga are found in ancient Hindu spir For several decades, the physiologic and neurophysiologic effects of relaxation and meditation have been studied. Studies document physiologic changes in the muscu-loskeletal, respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems during yoga (20). These effects benefit patients with high blood pressure (21), asthma (22), and carpal tunnel syndrome (23). Additionally, yoga has measurable effects on the brain. Several studies document increased alpha waves in the EEGs of subjects...

Relaxation Therapy

There are many different types of relaxation techniques which include meditation, mind body interaction, music- or sound-induced relaxation, mental imagery, and biofeedback. Rhythmic, deep, visualized or diaphragmatic breathing may also be used. Most studies of relaxation therapies are of poor quality and provide conflicting results. There is some evidence of short-term benefit in chronic low back pain for combined cognitive therapy and progressive relaxation therapy 28 . Mindfulness based stress reduction, a learned meditation technique that has been applied to many chronic psychological and physical health conditions, appears to be associated with significant and sustained improvements in pain intensity 29 , but has yet to be subjected to adequately sized randomized trials.

Treatment Method

Many different meditation methods are used. All these techniques elicit relaxation by focusing concentration, relaxing the body, and diverting attention from stressful thoughts and feelings. One of the simplest strategies is outlined by Dr. Herbert Benson in The Relaxation Response Other, more formal, meditation methods include transcendental meditation, mindfulness meditation (or vipassana), and meditation techniques associated with Zen (the Chinese word for meditation) and yoga. Mindfulness meditation has been extensively described and researched by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn. The relaxation response also may be produced by hypnosis, guided imagery, biofeedback, and prayer, all of which are discussed in detail elsewhere in this book.


Well as decreased mood disturbance and anxious mood (Cruess et al., 2000a) in HIV-positive patients. A similar study demonstrated that behavioral stress management techniques such as self-induced relaxation using progressive muscle relaxation, electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback, self-hypnosis, and meditation resulted in improvement in anxiety, mood, and self-esteem (Taylor, 1995). Lutgendorf and colleagues (1998) also observed improvement in cognitive coping strategies, namely positive reframing and acceptance in addition to improvements in social supports.

Clinical Application

The treatment focused on (1) identifying and counteracting her trauma-related emotional, cognitive, and behavioral avoidance activities (2) identifying existing coping skills, which would provide evidence that she was not as helpless- hopeless as she felt herself to be (3) providing motivation for her to give up her identity as a victim by identifying alternative interpersonal schemas and behaviors that would support connection to others and the development of healthy, nonabusive relationships and (4) further motivating letting go of her identify as victim via realistic appraisals of success and competence in day-to-day life rather than only in traumatic circumstances.

Modern Well Being

The universe, derived from both eastern Asian and Western classical-vitalist cosmologies. It pays close attention to the action of primary elements (earth, air, fire, water, metal, and wood), and to the old existential or environmental categories such as air, food and drink, exercise, sleep and work, the evacuations, and passions of the mind. The body is seen as existing in a biological envelope through which the cosmic physical forces of 'bio-energy' (or ying and yang) flow with a transcendent psychic energy that can be either harmful or benign. There is a particular interest in the tonic therapeutic actions and reactions of the five senses (acting not only through the nose, but through the eyes, the hands, the ears, and the voice) and in psychosomatic medicine generally the term favoured by progressive holistic GPs is 'biopsychosocial medicine'.46 The techniques used to control bio-energy are mainly those preserved and developed in the ancient practical-medicine traditions of...

Journal Articles

T'ai chi, also known as t'ai chi ch'uan, was developed in China hundreds of years ago and is a component of traditional Chinese medicine. On the surface, t'ai chi appears to be simply slow body movements. In practice, it may provide some of the physical benefits of exercise and the relaxation effects of meditation. T'ai chi has been widely practiced in China for centuries and has recently become popular in the United States.

Treatment Strategies

Meditation, relaxation The negative impact of HIV-related fatigue on quality of life has been emphasized throughout this chapter. Addressing the consequences of fatigue is also crucial to improve the patient's quality of life. Treatment of fatigue should not merely involve the restoration or amelioration of energy, but also the preservation of energy to improve the patient's level of functioning. This may entail appropriate rest, pacing of energy-consuming activities, stress reduction, meditation or relaxation techniques, aerobic exercise (if it is not contraindicated), and participation in pleasurable activities. Counseling and communication can help patients re-prioritize their activities, adjust to their limitations, and restructure their goals and expectations

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