Neutropenic Enterocolitis

Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE), or typhlitis, is a relatively frequent gastrointestinal complication encountered in patients with prolonged neutropenia, usually in the setting of post-induction therapy for acute leukemia. Its incidence ranges between 2.6 and 12%,75,76 depending on clinical diagnoses versus autopsy findings. It can also occur after prolonged neutropenia, as occurs with bone marrow transplantation.77 It is encountered after induction therapy for acute leukemias in approximately 3-7%78,79 of patients, and only rarely with chronic leukemias.80 Occasionally, NE is reported in non-neoplastic conditions, such as HIV infections.81 Although typhlitis is predominantly seen in patients with prolonged neutropenia after aggressive chemotherapy for leukemia, it can occasionally be the presenting feature of the disease.82,83

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