Natural Remedies for Kidney Stones
Nephrolithiasis is a disorder in which small stones - usually formed from calcium and oxalate - precipitate in the kidney. If they pass into the ureter they cause irritation, spasm, and may block the flow of urine. The pain of a kidney stone is intense it typically starts suddenly in the lower back and radiates down and around toward the groin. In general, the more calcium and oxalate in the urine, the greater the chances of developing kidney stones. Uric acid in the urine can be the seed around which calcium oxalate stones develop. The risk of kidney stones can be strongly influenced by dietary factors.5
In healthy adults, oral intakes of calcium up to 2 g per day do not have significant side effects or toxicity. People with hyperparathyroidism and people who form calcium-oxalate kidney stones should avoid high intakes of calcium. In healthy adults, high intakes of calcium do not appear to increase the risk of kidney stones.
Abdominal pain should always be taken seriously, as peritoneal signs may be absent. Acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, and divertic-ulitis can be sources of rapid deterioration. Bacterial infections of the upper urinary tract or biliary system are more likely to be severe in the presence of obstruction due to kidney stones, tumor, or choledocholithiasis.
Probably the most intense of pains experienced by humans is that resulting from nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), which can be reproduced with some symptomatic accuracy in rats. With any pain model, but especially those of a potentially severe nature, the ethical implications should be addressed. A stimulus that cannot be terminated by either the experimenter or animal (e.g., by escape or an operant response) is of particular concern, and a factor that is more common in visceral than somatic pain models due to the nature of the pain. With this in mind, a number of models have been introduced to replicate nephrolithiasis, one of which is the introduction of artificial ureteral calculosis in the rat the surgical formation of an artificial kidney stone in the ureter. Such a model was presented by Giamberardino et al. (74), and involves the injection of 20 p,L dental resin cement solution into the upper-third of one ureter. The cement will harden and block the ureter, resulting in a marked...
Most of the normal epithelial cells in the adult kidney, including the loop of Henle, proximal and distal tubules, collecting ducts, and calices of different sizes are completely negative in staining with a probe specific for hyaluronan. The mesenchymal compartment in the kidney cortex and outer medulla is also very weak in hyaluronan staining, in striking contrast to the inner medulla where hyaluronan resides in high concentrations, perhaps as part of the urine concentration process. There is also little, if any, expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 in normal kidney. However, both CD44 and hyaluronan are highly upregulated in the kidney cortex after immunological (42) and ischemic (43) injury, CD44 particularly in the tubular epithelial cells, and hyaluronan in the interstitium. Cultured cortical tubular epithelial cells are also capable of hyaluronan synthesis (44) induced by cytokines, high glucose (45), and cell dispersal, while downregulated by cell density-dependent...
A 38-yr-old woman was referred because of a 75-lb weight gain over the past 7 yr. She has noticed some increasing facial fullness and has had some problems with climbing stairs. She has had insomnia and nocturia for the past 3 yr and complains of some easy bruisability. She recently suffered a stress fracture in her right foot. She has maintained normal menstrual periods, but has had a decreased libido. She complains of emotional lability over the past 2 yr. She denied any history of diabetes, hypertension, or kidney stones.
This 33-yr-old man presented with recurrent kidney stones and hypercalcemia, and was diagnosed as having primary hyperparathyroidism (serum Ca 10-12 mg dL, serum PTH 95 pg mL). Further work-up demonstrated a growth hormone and prolactin secreting pituitary tumor, a spinal cord ependymoma, and an insulinoma therefore, a diagnosis of MEN 1 Syndrome was made. During the parathyroidectomy in May 1999, parathyroid hyperplasia was discovered and total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation to the left forearm was performed.
Further evaluation showed that she had forearm osteopenia with a one-third distal radius bone mineral density (BMD) of 0.873 gm cm2 (T-score -1.8, Z-score -2.0), vertebral osteoporosis with an L2-L4 lumbar spine BMD of 0.650 gm cm2 (T-score -2.5, Z-score -2.0), and left femoral neck osteopenia with BMD of 0.755 gm cm2 (T-score -1.9, Z-score -1.5). An X-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder with tomograms showed no calcium-containing kidney stones. She denied any complaint of abdominal pain, esophageal reflux, heartburn, or history of peptic ulcer disease. She complained of mild fatigue and difficulty maintaining concentration, and wondered whether her mild hypercalcemia was contributing to her lack of energy or declining mental acuity. Past medical history was significant for mild essential hypertension for 5 yr, easily controlled with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg d, hypercholesterolemia diagnosed 2 yr earlier and treated to goal range with atorvastatin 10 mg d without hepatitis or...
Gout is much more frequent in patients with chronic renal failure than in the general population. The explanation lies in the body's control of serum uric acid levels. Uric acid normally is excreted in the urine, but when kidney function decreases, uric acid excretion decreases and, as a result, blood levels tend to rise. An elevation above 6 mg per dl tends to cause precipitation of uric acid in joints (causing gout) and also in the kidneys, sometimes leading to a uric acid kidney stone.
Cranberry generally is well tolerated. Cranberry may interact with blood-thinning medications, including warfarin (Coumadin). The chronic use of high doses may increase the risk of developing kidney stones and may cause stomach discomfort, loose stools, and nausea. The safety of cranberry use in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding is not known. Taking vitamin C supplements is a nonherbal approach sometimes recommended for preventing and treating UTIs. However, clinical studies do not support the use of vitamin C for preventing or treating these infections. Vitamin C may increase the risk of kidney stones in those with a history of kidney stones. A theoretical risk exists that high doses of vitamin C may stimulate the immune system and possibly worsen MS.
Diagnosis Diarrhea, cystine and calcium oxa-late urinary crystals and stones, nephrolithia-sis, urosepsis increased uric acid excretion may mimic acute gout increased Fe absorption with hemosiderosis, increases sepsis risks from Vibrio and Yersinia. Nephrolithiasis risks are increased by vitamin D supplementation, as in vitamin D-fortified milk. Vitamin C toxicity can induce oxidative stress with hemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. Treatment Withdrawal, fluid loading, kidney stone lithotripsy.
Individuals with a tendency to form kidney stones can reduce the risk by 4 Reducing caffeine intake, as high intakes increase calcium excretion into the urine and may promote stone formation. Heavy alcohol consumption also increases the chance of developing kidney stones. Because vitamin C can be metabolized to oxa-late, it has been suggested that high intakes of vitamin C might increase risk of kidney stones. However, oxalate in the urine generally does not increase unless the daily dose of vitamin C is greater than 6 g, and even then only rarely. In individuals susceptible to stone formation who are taking high doses of vitamin C, supplemental vitamin B6 and magnesium can reduce risk of increased oxalate in the urine.
51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones
Do you have kidney stones? Do you think you do, but aren’t sure? Do you get them often, and need some preventative advice? 51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones can help.