History

The history of H. tuberosus has been described in a number of articles (Decaisne, 1880 Gibault, 1912 Gray and Trumbull, 1883 Hooker, 1897 Lacaita, 1919 Salaman, 1940 Schlechtendal, 1858 Trumbull and Gray, 1877), and the following is therefore a summary. Jerusalem artichoke is thought to be one of the oldest cultivated crops in North America. Although archaeological records are lacking, several Native American groups probably grew the plant centuries before European settlers arrived on the...

Info

FIGURE 5.2 High-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector chro-matogram of Jerusalem artichoke inulin separating the sample into discrete dp fractions. (After Saengthong-pinit, W. and Sajjaanantakul, T., Postharvest Biol. Technol., 37, 93-100, 2005. With permission.) al. (1989). During storage inulin continues to be degraded, forming some fructans without a terminal glucose, which can also be separated using HPAE-PAD (Saengthongpinit and Sajjaanantakul, 2005)....

References

Allias, J.-J., Favela-Torres, E., and Baratti, J., Continuous production of ethanol with Zymomonas mobilis growing on Jerusalem artichoke juice, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 29, 778-782, 1987. Amato, J.A., The Great Jerusalem Artichoke Circus The Buying and Selling of the Rural American Dream, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993. Anon., Energy Conversion Values, 2006, Antonkiewicz, J. and Jasiewicz, C., Assessment of Jerusalem artichoke usability for phytoremediation of soils contaminated...

Breeding Programs

Growers have selected for desirable traits in Jerusalem artichokes since the early days of its cultivation, with the result that a large number of cultivars and clones have been described. The tubers have been the main focus of selection, with substantial variation occurring in size, shape, color, and yield (see Chapter 4). The first tubers taken to Europe were larger than wild tubers and have been continuously selected by growers since the 17th century. However, the first systematic breeding...

Morphology 411 Stems and Branches

Jerusalem artichoke stems can grow to 3 m or more in height, though most clones are shorter. Dwarf clones have been selected (Zubr and Pedersen, 1993). The stems are stout and heavily trichomed when young. Initially the stems are quite succulent but become woody over time. Branches vary in number and position on the main stems. The stems arise directly from the seed tuber, with branches forming at nodes on the stem. Basal branches may form underground and at the soil surface appear to be stems...

In Human Diets

Jerusalem artichoke tubers have been utilized as a staple or sustenance crop at various times and in diverse places other parts of the plant are not part of the human diet. Native Americans were the first to cultivate the crop and consume it in substantial amounts, as it originated in North America. After its introduction in 1607, it became for a time a major source of carbohydrate in the Western European diet, until the potato replaced it in the mid-18th century. It was again cultivated as a...

Genetic Resources

Plant genetic resource collections are vital to plant breeding efforts. In the early 1990s, one survey concluded that the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool available to plant breeding may not exceed 150 accessions van Soest et al., 1993 . However, even given duplications in different collections, this appears to be an underestimate. Many hundreds of accessions are today maintained in plant germplasm collections worldwide. These include wild and weedy accessions, landraces or traditional and...

Jerusalem Artichoke And Oxalates

Adamson, D., Expansion and division in auxin-treated plant cells. Can. J. Bot., 40, 719-744, 1962. Alex, J.F. and Switzer, C.M., Ontario weeds. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food, Pub., 505, 200p, 1976. Bagni, N., Donini, A., Serafini-Fracassini, S., Content and aggregation of ribosomes during formation, dormancy, and sprouting of tubers of Helianthus tuberosus. Plant Physiol., 27, 370-375, 1972. Barloy, J., Etudes sur les bases genetiques, agronomiques et physiologiques de la culture de...

Butanol and Acetone

Several isolates of Clostridium species have been assessed in regard to their potential to form butanol and acetone under anaerobic conditions. C. acetobutylicum and C. pasteurianum are grampositive anaerobic bacteria that produce butanol, acetone, and ethanol from inulin. The organisms utilize nearly all common plant sugars as substrates therefore, acidic or enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin to fructose and glucose is an essential first step. Strains containing inulinase 2,1-p-D-fructan...

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood sugar is not properly taken up into cells. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood remains high. The uptake of glucose into the body's cells is controlled by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is due to the pancreas failing to produce sufficient insulin. It is often caused by genetic factors. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, occurs when the body's cells are unable to respond very efficiently to...

Partial Hydrolysis Inulin Oligomers

Inulin oligomers are generally considered to be fructooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of lt 9. Within this group are the short-chain fructooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 2 to 4. Inulin oligomers have a number of uses. For example, the short-chain fraction can be used for its nutraceutical prebiotic properties, and also as a sweetener in that it is around 45 the sweetness of sucrose. Inulooligosaccharides are produced by either synthesis see Section 5.6.3 or...

Chemical Composition and Inulin Chemistry

Plants sequester carbon in specialized reproductive organs e.g., storage roots, tubers, and seeds as a source of energy and as carbon skeletons for the onset of growth the following season. Starch, a polymer of glucose, is the most prevalent form of stored carbon. It is composed of a mixture of straight-chain amylose and branched amylopectin molecules, the ratio of which is genetically controlled. Amylose contains 200 to 1,000 glucose subunits linked via a- 1-4 glucosidic bonds, while...

Selective Oxidation of the Primary Hydroxyl Group

The direct oxidation of hydroxyls on inulin allows the potential introduction of carbonyl and carboxyl groups, altering the properties of the polysaccharide and opening additional commercial applications Bragd et al., 2004 . The primary hydroxyl in the C-6 position on the fructofuranoside subunits can be selectively oxidized using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy TEMPO . This forms a stable radical that can be oxidized by hypobromite, or similar reagent, to give a nitrosonium ion Bragd et...

Probiotics Prebiotics and Bifidobacteria

A number of health benefits attributed to Jerusalem artichoke tubers in human and animal diets are related to its role as a promoter of probiotic activity in the large intestine. Probiotics have been a dietary element for thousands of years. However, the term probiotic only gained its current usage in the early 1970s, as an organism or substance that has a beneficial effect on the balance of microorganisms in the colon. This definition coincided with work revealing the essential role of...

Blood Lipids and Heart Disease

Inulins and fructooligosaccharides help maintain the health of the cardiovascular system and may reduce the risk of heart disease. A key factor in this is the maintenance or improvement of blood lipid composition, through decreases in triglycerides triacylglycerols , and the lowering of cholesterol and homocysteine levels Hidaka et al., 2001 Luo et al., 1996 Tungland, 2003 . Convincing lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animals e.g., Delzenne et al., 1993 Fiordaliso et al., 1995...

Inulin and Bone Health

Prebiotics and synbiotics containing fructooligosaccharides enhance mineral bioavailability by improving the absorption of minerals in the colon, especially calcium, iron, and magnesium Caers, 2004 Coudray, 2004 Hidaka et al., 2001 Ohta et al., 1994 Roberfroid, 2005 . The mechanism for this is probably enhanced passive and active mineral transport across the intestinal epithelium, mediated by increased levels of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids and decreased pH ScholzAhrens and...

Inulin Extraction Isolation Purification Fractionation Drying And Storage

Jerusalem Artichoke Inulin

There have been a number of methods developed for the extraction of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers Aravina et al., 2001 Barta, 1993 Ji et al., 2002 Vogel, 1993 , a composite of which is illustrated in Figure 5.3. The specific method selected will depend on the end product desired, resources available, volume, and other factors. Jerusalem artichoke tubers arriving from the field or storage are first washed to remove any soil and extraneous matter, and then mechanically cleaned Barta,...

Food Plants Containing Fructans

Adenophora liliifolia Allium ampeloprasum Allium cepa Allium chinense Allium fistulosum Allium sativum Allium schoenoprasum Allium tuberosum Arctium lappa Artemisia lactiflora Asparagus officinalis Asparagus racemosus Asphodelus aestivus Avena abyssinica Avena byzantina Avena sativa Bambusa beecheyana Brachiaria deflexa Camassia 2 species Campanula rapunculus Chrysanthemum moriflorum Chrysanthemum spatiosum Cichorium endivia Cichorium intybus Cirsium oleraceum Claytonia perfoliata Coix...