Nomenclature For Helianthus tuberosus L

A diverse assortment of Latin and common names have been ascribed to Helianthus tuberosus since its introduction into Europe, making its history and outward dispersal from the New World difficult to trace. Linn assigned the current Latin binomial (H. tuberosus L.) for the species in 1753. Today his system of classification is universally accepted, though it was not uniformly welcomed at that time. This sentiment is evident in the following comment by Brookes, published in 1763 I hope therefore...

Amino3oxopropylinulin

To convert a nitrile into an amide by hydration requires strongly acidic or basic catalysts however, with O-(cyanoethyl)inulin (19) such conditions cause glycosidic bond cleavage and decyanoethy-lation to occur (Verraest, 1997). The nitriles of O-(cyanoethyl)inulin can be converted to amides by the use of metal ion catalysis (Ghaffar and Parkins, 1995) or by using hydrogen peroxide (Vaughn and Robbins, 1975 Verraest et al., 1995). The latter is a strong nucleophile that hydrolyzes the nitrile...

Aminopropylinulin

0-(Cyanoethyl)inulin (19) can be reduced to an amine, 0-(aminopropyl)inulin (25), by several methods (1) using sodium borohydride in the presence of cobalt chloride hexahydrate (Figure 5.7) (Satoh et al., 1969) (2) catalytic hydrogenation (Verraest, 1997) and (3) using a metal (sodium, lithium, or calcium) in liquid ammonia and methanol (Doumaux, 1972 Schroter and M ller, 1957). Only about 10 of the cyanoethyl groups are converted to 0-aminopropyl groups, and this decreases with increasing...

Cationic Modification

Cationic inulin containing a nitrogen group can be formed using several reagents (Kuzee et al., 1998). Other modified inulins (e.g., hydroxyalkylated, carboxymethylated, oxidized) can also be subjected to cationic modification to yield compounds with better solubility, lower viscosity, and better degradation properties than similar compounds derived from other polysaccharides. Such products have potential utility as disinfectants, hair conditioners, molding gels, flocculants, corrosion...

Cross Linked Inulin

Higher molecular weight inulin forms gels under appropriate conditions however, for certain applications (e.g., drug delivery), it is desirable to increase the gel stability through the formation of covalent cross-links between neighboring molecules (Grinenko et al., 1998). The initial step in cross-linking involves methacrylation of the inulin using glycidyl methacrylate (Vervoort et al., 1997) in the presence of (dimethylamino)pyridine as catalyst. Methacrylation of inulin occurs at carbon...

Cyclic Inulooligosaccharides

Inulin can be used to produce cyclic inulooligosaccharides in which the fructose chain closes back on itself, eliminating the presence of a reducing end (Figure 5.4). These compounds are thought to be potentially useful for food, drug, cosmetic, surfactant, catalyst, and purification and separation applications. The cyclic compounds contain six, seven, or eight fructose subunits (i.e., cycloinulo-hexaose (1), cycloinuloheptaose, cycloinulooctaose), with the distribution favoring the six-subunit...

Cycloinulohexaose Derivatives

Cycloinulohexaose can be derivatized to additional structures of interest (Figure 5.8), e.g., fructo-sylated branched cyclic inulooligosaccharides (Kushibe and Morimoto, 1994), or cross-linked to give a solid electrolyte (Shimofusachi, 1998). When esterified to fatty, benzoic, or other acids, cycloinulohexaose can potentially be used as an oily base, oily gelation agent, or film-forming agent for cosmetics (Shimizu and Suzuki, 1996). Modification of cycloinulohexaose via sulfony-lation of the...

Depth of Eyes

This trait ranges from deep to shallow (Pas'ko, 1973). The underground portion of the stem represents the site for rhizome development and, in many instances, the formation of lateral branches. The length of this portion of the stem depends on the planting depth of the seed tubers shallow planting is undesirable. Swanton (1986) found that the dry weight of the underground stem was substantially higher in cultivated clones (35.3 g) than in wild clones (16.2 g).

Dkhel15

Source The Nordic Gene Bank database, http tor.ngb.se sesto . (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.) Source The Nordic Gene Bank database, http tor.ngb.se sesto . (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.) 19'), and one each in the Netherlands ('Dwarf'), Norway ('Nora'), Sweden ('Vanlig'), the Czech Republic ('K24'), and the Russian Federation ('Urodny') (http tor.ngb.se sesto ). A replica collection of the NGB accessions is held at...

Fruit

The fruit is an achene and generally few are formed (Russell, 1979 Swanton, 1986 Westley, 1993 Wyse and Wilfahrt, 1982). Seeds are x 5 mm long x 2 mm wide, flattened wedge shaped (obovate to linear-obovate), and smooth. Their external color is mottled black, gray, tan, or brown and may have black spots (Alex and Switzer, 1976 Konvalinkova, 2003 USDA, 2006). Wild clones typically have significantly more seed (e.g., 3 to 50 seeds per flower head Wyse and Wilfahrt, 1982 Westley, 1993) than...

Genetic Resources Breeding and Cultivars

The future of the Jerusalem artichoke as a crop hinges upon the introduction of critical genetic improvements via plant breeding. Existing commercial cultivars are closer in appearance to their wild ancestors than most crop species, due to the fact that the Jerusalem artichoke has not been subject to the same degree of genetic manipulation. Nevertheless, a great deal of diversity is evident. The tubers, for instance, occur in a range of shapes, sizes and colors. Selective breeding has been...

Gf5

FIGURE 5.1 Structure of inulin containing a terminal glucopyranose unit (GFn), inulin with a terminal fructoside unit (GFm), and a branched inulin (GF5). (inulins, levans, and branched fructans). Levans are mainly comprised of p-(2-6)-linkages, though they may also be branched. Fructans are found in a cross section of families (Agavaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Goodeniaceae, Gramineae, Haemodoraceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Menyanthaceae, Monotropaceae, Pyrolaceae, Stylidiaceae)...

Glycolic Oxidation

Glycolic oxidation involves ring opening and can be accomplished in several ways. In a two-step oxidation process, sodium periodate is used to convert the glycolic subunits to the dialdehyde form, followed by reaction with sodium chlorite or sodium chlorite and hydrogen peroxide to form dicarboxy-inulin (Besemer and van Bekkum, 1994d). Inulin prepared in this manner, however, has a poor calcium binding capacity (Nieuwenhuizen et al., 1985), possibly due to the formation of relatively stable...

Helianthus L Hybrids Growing Wild in the US

H. divaricatus X H. giganteus H. grosseserratus X H. mollis H. mollis X H. occidentalis H. divaricatus X H. grosseserratus H. giganteus X H. mollis H. divaricatus X H. microcephalus H. grosseserratus X H. maximiliani H. grosseserratus X H. salicifolius H. pauciflorus X H. tuberosus H. giganteus X H. grosseserratus H. annuus X H. decapetalus H. maximiliani X H. salicifolius H. angustifolius X H. grosseserratus Source Adapted from USDA, Plant Names, http plants.usda.gov , 2006. The following is a...

Hydroxyimino3aminoproplyinulin

can be synthesized from O-(cyanoethyl)inulin (19) by reaction with hydroxylamine in a neutral medium (Figure 5.7), giving about 80 conversion (Verraest, 1997). The amidoximes can be found in two forms (22, 23), the syn-hydroxyimino being the most stable. Amidoximes are particularly reactive compounds and will effectively chelate transition cations such as Cu2+ (24). P l-OXO-3, 6, 9, 9-Tetrakia (Carboxymethyl)-

Info

TABLE 8.8 (CONTINUED) The 155 Wild-Collected H. tuberosus Clones Maintained in the Collection of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro, in 2006 TABLE 8.8 (CONTINUED) The 155 Wild-Collected H. tuberosus Clones Maintained in the Collection of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro, in 2006

Inulin Ethers

Etherification of inulin with O-carboxymethyl groups forms a polycarboxylate (Chien et al., 1979) that can be further modified to facilitate its conjugation with erythrocytes for immunological assays. Even with an excess of monochloroacetate, products with a degree of substitution of only about 0.1 are obtained. Etherification with epoxides, such as ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, in aqueous medium in the presence of a basic catalyst yields O-hydroxyalkyl derivatives (11, 12) (Figure 5.6)....

Inulin Amino Acids

Covalent bonding of an amino acid to inulin (Figure 5.6) allows further chemical modification of the polymers for possible medical use, peptide synthesis, or producing chelating agents for metal ions. The terminal primary amino acid could be more reactive toward acylating agents and potentially allow the attaching of a cross section of molecules of interest. Such compounds are attractive since both amino acids and inulin are expected to be nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable (Won and...

Leaf Number

The number of leaves per plant varies widely among clones grown under uniform conditions (e.g., 372 to 953 (Swanton, 1986), 525 (McLaurin et al., 1999)). Production conditions such as soil fertility, moisture availability, and plant population density have a pronounced impact on leaf number as well as the age of the plant. In general, leaf number increases fairly progressively until around flowering, and then declines thereafter (McLaurin et al., 1999). Plants shed leaves during the season, the...

Medical Applications

Pure inulin powder is sold for nutritional and medicinal purposes. For nutritional purposes, it is sufficient that any toxic components and pathogenic organisms are removed from the inulin. However, for medical and diagnostic uses, inulin must be extremely pure and have a high degree of polymerization (> 20). Inulin from Jerusalem artichoke typically has only half of its inulin above a degree of polymerization of 10, with 12 the most frequently occurring chain length in raw tubers. Therefore,...

Number of Inflorescences

The number of inflorescences per plant was separated into three classes small (1 to 15), medium (16 to 49), and large (50 to 155) which varied between early and late clones and with the number of branches (Pas'ko, 1973). Swanton (1986) found a range of 6 to 78 inflorescences per plant among clones from different ecological niches the range in dry weight was also substantial (i.e., 2 to 17 g per plant). The number of flowers also varies with production year and growing conditions (Tsvetoukhine,...

Oh

FIGURE 5.4 Structure of cycloinulohexaose and D-fructose dianhydride, the most common cyclic fructosans derived from inulin. Harris and Richards, 1996). Difructose anhydride III one of the most common forms, can be produced by incubating inulin with the exo-acting inulin D-fructotransferase (EC 2.4.1.93 inulinase II) (Taniguchi and Uchiyama, 1982) or microorganisms possessing the enzyme. Difructose anhydride III is about one half the sweetness of sucrose and does not appear to be digested...

Origin

There was initially confusion concerning where the Jerusalem artichoke originated. Linnaeus, in Species Plantarum (1753), indicated a Brazilian origin, though in his earlier Hortus Cliffortianus (1737), he listed H. tuberosus as from Canada. Paxton also indicated the species as first introduced into England in 1617 from Brazil (Hereman, 1868). The impression of a South American origin may in fact have contributed to the acceptance of the common name topinambou adopted from the name of the...

Phyllotaxy

Initial leaves are opposite with two (rarely three) per node. The opposite orientation changes to alternate at a node level that varies among clones. The shift from opposite to alternate does not occur at a uniform position within an individual plant, such that some stems or branches may be alternate while others are opposite. Eventually the phyllotaxy shifts from 1 2 to 3 8. Flower heads occur alone or in groups at the ends of the stem and axillary branches. Each inflorescence is comprised of...

Pi 503270

Source NCPRIS database, Laura Marek (NCRPRIS), personal communication. (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.) Source NCPRIS database, Laura Marek (NCRPRIS), personal communication. (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.) 2006, and therefore no longer available (Laura Marek, personal communication). When available, accessions are usually supplied in the form of seed, in a quantity of up to 100 seeds. The Jerusalem artichoke material held...

References

Aldinus, T., Exactissima descriptio rariorum quarundam plantarum, in Horto Farnesiano, Romae, 1625. Amato, J.A., The Great Jerusalem Artichoke Circus The Buying and Selling of the Rural American Dream, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993. Ammann, P., Character Plantarum Naturalis fine ultimo videlicet fructificatione desumtus, ac in gratiam philiatrorum, L.C. Michaelis, Lipsiae, Germany, 1676. Angyalffy, M.A., Grunds tze der Feldkultur 3, Teil, Pesth, 1824. Anisimova, I.N., Nature...

Stems

The surface of young stems is covered with very long acuminate trichomes comprised of six or seven cells. Unlike leaf trichomes, their growth is more or less directly outward from the stem, often reaching 2.6 mm in length or more. The number of trichomes per unit surface area is substantial (Figure 4.5E) and varies among clones, though none were devoid of trichomes. The tip of the stem, especially the upper 30 cm, has more trichomes than the base (Tsvetoukhine, 1960). As the stem increases in...

Stomata Size and Density

The stomata represent the primary sites for gas exchange. Data for one clone (Table 4.2) indicate that the size of stomata are essentially the same between the adaxial (343 pm2) and abaxial (323 pm2) surfaces however, their shape varies, with lower stomata being rounder (1.3 1 length-to-width ratio) than those of the upper surface, which are more oval (1.6 1). The data represent only one clone and may not be indicative of the variation over the entire leaf surface of the plant.

Table

Current Common Names for Helianthus tuberosus L. in Various Languages Source Adapted from Kays, S.J. and Silva Dias, J.C., Cultivated Vegetables of the World Latin Binomial, Common Name in 15 Languages, Edible Part, and Method of Preparation, Exon Press, Athens, GA, 1996, with additional names. With permission. acquired the name topinambour. The name appears to have been derived from the mistaken impression in the early 1600s that the crop was native to and introduced from South America (e.g.,...

Underutilized Resource

The Jerusalem artichoke or topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is not only a fascinating species, but also one with an exceptionally colorful history. Over the past 300 years, interest in the crop has vacillated widely. During times of crop failure and food shortage (e.g., potato famine, during and after World War II) or high petroleum prices, a new round of interest in the crop's potential often occurs, all too frequently with only a limited understanding of the extensive body of literature...

Uses For Native And Fractionated Inulin 571 Native Inulin 5711 Bulking Agents

Considerable interest was focused in the 1990s on inulin as a bulking agent in low-calorie foods, due to its limited utilization by humans. A bulking agent increases the weight or volume of a food without altering its functionality or utility. If an artificial sweetener is used to replace the sugar in a cake mix, the differential in sweetness (e.g., 600x) results in potentially a tremendous loss in volume. The addition of an acceptable bulking agent, especially one that confers few calories,...

History

The history of H. tuberosus has been described in a number of articles (Decaisne, 1880 Gibault, 1912 Gray and Trumbull, 1883 Hooker, 1897 Lacaita, 1919 Salaman, 1940 Schlechtendal, 1858 Trumbull and Gray, 1877), and the following is therefore a summary. Jerusalem artichoke is thought to be one of the oldest cultivated crops in North America. Although archaeological records are lacking, several Native American groups probably grew the plant centuries before European settlers arrived on the...

Hyaluronic Acid Composition Artichoke European Patent

Allias, J.-J., Favela-Torres, E., and Baratti, J., Continuous production of ethanol with Zymomonas mobilis growing on Jerusalem artichoke juice, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 29, 778-782, 1987. Amato, J.A., The Great Jerusalem Artichoke Circus The Buying and Selling of the Rural American Dream, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1993. Anon., Energy Conversion Values, 2006, Antonkiewicz, J. and Jasiewicz, C., Assessment of Jerusalem artichoke usability for phytoremediation of soils contaminated...

Breeding Programs

Growers have selected for desirable traits in Jerusalem artichokes since the early days of its cultivation, with the result that a large number of cultivars and clones have been described. The tubers have been the main focus of selection, with substantial variation occurring in size, shape, color, and yield (see Chapter 4). The first tubers taken to Europe were larger than wild tubers and have been continuously selected by growers since the 17th century. However, the first systematic breeding...

Morphology 411 Stems and Branches

Jerusalem artichoke stems can grow to 3 m or more in height, though most clones are shorter. Dwarf clones have been selected (Zubr and Pedersen, 1993). The stems are stout and heavily trichomed when young. Initially the stems are quite succulent but become woody over time. Branches vary in number and position on the main stems. The stems arise directly from the seed tuber, with branches forming at nodes on the stem. Basal branches may form underground and at the soil surface appear to be stems...

In Human Diets

Jerusalem artichoke tubers have been utilized as a staple or sustenance crop at various times and in diverse places other parts of the plant are not part of the human diet. Native Americans were the first to cultivate the crop and consume it in substantial amounts, as it originated in North America. After its introduction in 1607, it became for a time a major source of carbohydrate in the Western European diet, until the potato replaced it in the mid-18th century. It was again cultivated as a...

Genetic Resources

Plant genetic resource collections are vital to plant breeding efforts. In the early 1990s, one survey concluded that the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool available to plant breeding may not exceed 150 accessions van Soest et al., 1993 . However, even given duplications in different collections, this appears to be an underestimate. Many hundreds of accessions are today maintained in plant germplasm collections worldwide. These include wild and weedy accessions, landraces or traditional and...

Jerusalem Artichoke And Oxalates

Adamson, D., Expansion and division in auxin-treated plant cells. Can. J. Bot., 40, 719-744, 1962. Alex, J.F. and Switzer, C.M., Ontario weeds. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food, Pub., 505, 200p, 1976. Bagni, N., Donini, A., Serafini-Fracassini, S., Content and aggregation of ribosomes during formation, dormancy, and sprouting of tubers of Helianthus tuberosus. Plant Physiol., 27, 370-375, 1972. Barloy, J., Etudes sur les bases genetiques, agronomiques et physiologiques de la culture de...

Butanol and Acetone

Several isolates of Clostridium species have been assessed in regard to their potential to form butanol and acetone under anaerobic conditions. C. acetobutylicum and C. pasteurianum are grampositive anaerobic bacteria that produce butanol, acetone, and ethanol from inulin. The organisms utilize nearly all common plant sugars as substrates therefore, acidic or enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin to fructose and glucose is an essential first step. Strains containing inulinase 2,1-p-D-fructan...

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood sugar is not properly taken up into cells. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood remains high. The uptake of glucose into the body's cells is controlled by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is due to the pancreas failing to produce sufficient insulin. It is often caused by genetic factors. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, occurs when the body's cells are unable to respond very efficiently to...

Partial Hydrolysis Inulin Oligomers

Inulin oligomers are generally considered to be fructooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of lt 9. Within this group are the short-chain fructooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 2 to 4. Inulin oligomers have a number of uses. For example, the short-chain fraction can be used for its nutraceutical prebiotic properties, and also as a sweetener in that it is around 45 the sweetness of sucrose. Inulooligosaccharides are produced by either synthesis see Section 5.6.3 or...

Plant Morphology and Anatomy

The general morphology of a Jerusalem artichoke plant can have a critical impact on its productivity. The rapid canopy development and its general architecture are critical attributes in the competitive success of the species in natural settings. The morphology of the plant is genetically regulated, and there are distinct differences among clones. In addition, within a clone there is tremendous plasticity in the final structure. Two genetically identical plants grown under differing conditions...

Chemical Composition and Inulin Chemistry

Plants sequester carbon in specialized reproductive organs e.g., storage roots, tubers, and seeds as a source of energy and as carbon skeletons for the onset of growth the following season. Starch, a polymer of glucose, is the most prevalent form of stored carbon. It is composed of a mixture of straight-chain amylose and branched amylopectin molecules, the ratio of which is genetically controlled. Amylose contains 200 to 1,000 glucose subunits linked via a- 1-4 glucosidic bonds, while...

Selective Oxidation of the Primary Hydroxyl Group

The direct oxidation of hydroxyls on inulin allows the potential introduction of carbonyl and carboxyl groups, altering the properties of the polysaccharide and opening additional commercial applications Bragd et al., 2004 . The primary hydroxyl in the C-6 position on the fructofuranoside subunits can be selectively oxidized using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy TEMPO . This forms a stable radical that can be oxidized by hypobromite, or similar reagent, to give a nitrosonium ion Bragd et...

Probiotics Prebiotics and Bifidobacteria

A number of health benefits attributed to Jerusalem artichoke tubers in human and animal diets are related to its role as a promoter of probiotic activity in the large intestine. Probiotics have been a dietary element for thousands of years. However, the term probiotic only gained its current usage in the early 1970s, as an organism or substance that has a beneficial effect on the balance of microorganisms in the colon. This definition coincided with work revealing the essential role of...

Blood Lipids and Heart Disease

Inulins and fructooligosaccharides help maintain the health of the cardiovascular system and may reduce the risk of heart disease. A key factor in this is the maintenance or improvement of blood lipid composition, through decreases in triglycerides triacylglycerols , and the lowering of cholesterol and homocysteine levels Hidaka et al., 2001 Luo et al., 1996 Tungland, 2003 . Convincing lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animals e.g., Delzenne et al., 1993 Fiordaliso et al., 1995...

Inulin and Bone Health

Prebiotics and synbiotics containing fructooligosaccharides enhance mineral bioavailability by improving the absorption of minerals in the colon, especially calcium, iron, and magnesium Caers, 2004 Coudray, 2004 Hidaka et al., 2001 Ohta et al., 1994 Roberfroid, 2005 . The mechanism for this is probably enhanced passive and active mineral transport across the intestinal epithelium, mediated by increased levels of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids and decreased pH ScholzAhrens and...

Inulin Extraction Isolation Purification Fractionation Drying And Storage

Jerusalem Artichoke Inulin

There have been a number of methods developed for the extraction of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers Aravina et al., 2001 Barta, 1993 Ji et al., 2002 Vogel, 1993 , a composite of which is illustrated in Figure 5.3. The specific method selected will depend on the end product desired, resources available, volume, and other factors. Jerusalem artichoke tubers arriving from the field or storage are first washed to remove any soil and extraneous matter, and then mechanically cleaned Barta,...

Food Plants Containing Fructans

Adenophora liliifolia Allium ampeloprasum Allium cepa Allium chinense Allium fistulosum Allium sativum Allium schoenoprasum Allium tuberosum Arctium lappa Artemisia lactiflora Asparagus officinalis Asparagus racemosus Asphodelus aestivus Avena abyssinica Avena byzantina Avena sativa Bambusa beecheyana Brachiaria deflexa Camassia 2 species Campanula rapunculus Chrysanthemum moriflorum Chrysanthemum spatiosum Cichorium endivia Cichorium intybus Cirsium oleraceum Claytonia perfoliata Coix...