Pain Stimuli in Animal Models

Models of visceral pain can be implemented using a variety of stimuli: chemical, developmental, electrical, environmental, infectious, mechanical, surgical, and thermal, or by genetic means. In the field of visceral pain research, thermal stimuli have not been extensively studied as the basis of animal models, and electrical stimulation of either isolated nerves or organs should be used with caution; such stimuli are not specific to visceral modalities (especially considering their convergence with somatic pain systems), cannot be considered natural, and do not involve any neural change that might be expected in conditions that manifest with visceral pain. These two methods aside, we have incorporated as many different approaches as possible into this review, which is organized by visceral system, and then by organ, beginning with those in the thorax and traveling distally to the genitourinary organs.

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