The evidence for mucosal afferents arises mainly from electrophysiological studies (see below). Anterograde tracing from the nodose ganglia revealed vagal endings within the mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract. These fibers pass through the muscle layers and submucosa and have multiple branching axons within the lamina propria of both villi and crypts, and have been located mainly within rat duodenum and jejunum (51,59). Tracing from the thoracic DRG of the cat revealed spinal afferent endings in the esophagogastric junction (60), some of which were located in the squamous epithelium.
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