Patients with painful neuromas have abnormal expression of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Similar changes in sodium channel expression have been identified in animal models of gastrointestinal diseases associated with pain. Patients with neuromas or neuropathic pain often benefit from anticonvulsive drugs, many of which block sodium channels. A similar mechanism may contribute to the effect of tricyclic anti-depressants or opioid agonists, both of which are effective in patients with chronic visceral pain.
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