Bt 320

Wilbur Ellis Inc

kurstaki/ HD-1

Based on Copping (1998), CPCR (1998), CDMS (1998), CEPA/DPR (1998)

Based on Copping (1998), CPCR (1998), CDMS (1998), CEPA/DPR (1998)

does not include a list of all B.t. products sold worldwide. There are currently over 100 B.t.k. products that have active registration labels in the U.S. alone. This does not include over 100 different B.t.k. strains or subspecies, but does denote over 100 different registered products. There is a high degree of redundancy between many of these registrations. For example, there are currently at least one dozen companies that sell Abbott's product Dipel®. Abbott also has 16 products based on different concentrations and formulations of Dipel®. Table 2.1 attempts to show the unique or larger volume products. A complete list of registered B.t.k. products can be found by searching the O.P.P. code 006402 at the following web site — http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/epa/m2.htm.

With the advent of genetic engineering, truncated forms of the B.t. endotoxins have been expressed in the tissues of several economically important plants. This new technology, transgenic plants, has the potential to revolutionize crop protection through the next millennium (Estruch et al. 1997). Though it may utilize proteins, peptides, or small molecules produced by microbial pathogens, this technology is not an example of microbial insecticides and will not be covered further in this chapter. Transgenic plants and crop protection will be discussed in detail later in this volume.

There are several important subspecies of B.t. that have been registered and marketed as separate products on different insect pests. These include Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (B.t.a) for control of other Lepidoptera less susceptible to B.t.k., Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis for control of mosquitoes and blackflies, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis for control of leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. Currently B.t. is being manufactured and/or sold in every country where Lepidoptera are important economic pests. However, sprayable B.t.s still make up less than 2% of the total global insecticide market (Wood Mackenzie 1998).

Another species of Bacillus, Bacillus sphaericus, has been registered for mosquito control (Copping 1998). The only non-Bacillus bacterial microbial insecticide is Serratia entomophila, currently registered for pastureland grub control in New Zealand.

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