Bacteria

Most of the pathogenic entobacteria are found in the families Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Micrococaceae (Tanada and Kaya 1993). Although there are many different types of bacteria that are known to acutely or chronically infect insects, only members of two genera of the order Eubacteriales, Bacillus (Bacillaceae) and Serratia (Enterobacteriaceae), have ever been registered to control insects. Bacillus is by far the most important microbial pesticide genus. In 1948, the first microbial insecticides registered in the U.S. were bacteria from the genus Bacillus. Two different species of Bacillus were registered to control the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (B. popilliae popilliae and B. popilliae lentimorbus). Another species of the Bacillaceae, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t), has been the most widely used and successful microbial pesticide ever registered. The sales of B.t. since its registration in 1961 account for the majority of all microbial pesticide sales worldwide. In 1997 the total sales of sprayable B.t. were estimated to be $145 million (Wood Mackenzie 1998). Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (B.t.k.) is registered for control of many important lepidopterous pests with over 30 different trade names by more than a dozen major companies (Copping 1998). A list of these products and companies have been compiled in

Table 2.1 (CDMS 1998; CEPA/DPR 1998; Copping 1998; CPCR 1998). This table

Table 2.1 Commercially Avaliable B.t. for Lepidoptera Control

Commercial Name

Current Producer

B.t. Subsp./strain

Bactospeine

Abbott

kurstaki/ HD-1

Biobit

Abbott

kurstaki/ HD-1

Dipel

Abbott

kurstaki/ HD-1

Florbac

Abbott

aizawai

Foray

Abbott

kurstaki/ HD-1

XenTari

Abbott

aizawai

Cordalene

Agrichem

kurstaki/ HD-1

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