References

Morrison, V. S. House, D. L. Bull, L. F. Bouse, and J. B. Carlton. 1979. New developments in the use of Trichogramma to control lepidopteran pests of cotton, pp. 125-127. In Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference. National Cotton Council of America. Memphis, TN. Aldrich, J. R. 1995. Testing the new associations biological control concept with a tachinid parasitoid (Euclytia flava). J. Chem. Ecol. 21 1031-1042. Anonymous. 1988. The maize...

Azadirachtin

Azadirachtin is a tetranortriterpenoid present in seeds from the Indian neem tree, Azadirachta indica. This compound was originally isolated by Butterworth and Morgan (1968) and its structure was subsequently described (Zanno et al., 1975 Kraus et al., 1985). Azadirachtin has strong antifeedant and repellant activity (Ascher, 1993 Simmonds and Blaney, 1996) and has pleiotropic effects on growth, development, and reproduction (Schmutterer, 1990 Mordue (Luntz) and Blackwell, 1993). In contrast to...

Sabadilla

Sabadilla is derived from the ripe seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale, also known as cevadilla or caustic barley, a tropical lily that grows in Central and South America. This species and several others (including the false hellebores, Veratrum spp., in the family Melanthaceae) produce veratrine alkaloids that are insecticidal. The veratrine alkaloids comprise approximately 0.3 of the weight of aged sabadilla seeds of these alkaloids, cevadine and veratridine are the most active insecticidally....

Latest Update About The Linalool To Kill Insect

Neem insecticides are derived from the tropical and subtropical Azadirachta indica ( Melia azidarachta), a tree in the family Meliaceae (the mahogany family). This species, also known as margosa and Indian lilac, is native to southern and southeastern Asia and is now grown in portions of Africa, the Americas, and Australia (Jacobson 1986 Saxena 1989 Schmutterer 1990). Azadirachtin, the principal active ingredient in neem extracts, is one of several liminoids extracted from neem seeds. It is a...

Biotic And Abiotic Factors Affecting The Expression Of Resistance

The expression of plant resistance to insects is affected by variation in insect, plants, and the environment (Heinrichs, 1988 Smith, 1989). Plant tissue age affects the expression of insect resistance in maize (Kumar and Asino, 1993 Videla et al., 1992 Wiseman and Snook, 1995), oil seed crops (McCloskey and Isman, 1995 Nault et al., 1992), tree crops (Bingaman and Hart, 1993), vegetables (de Kogel et al., 1997 Diawara et al., 1994 Nihoul, 1994 Vaughn and Hoy, 1993) and wheat (Hein, 1992). In...

Nematodes

Nematodes are not actually microbial organisms but are always included in discussions, reviews, or symposia on microbial control of insects. According to Gaugler and Kaya (1990) they occupy a middle ground between predators, parasitoids and microbial pathogens a position that endows them with a unique combination of biological control attributes. They are probably second only to bacteria (i.e., B.t.) in terms of commercial importance of microbial insecticides. Table 2.6 lists the currently...

Historical Use Of Parasitoids And Predators

Predatory and parasitic relationships among insects existed long before the appearance of humans, and it is uncertain when these entomophagous habits were first recognized. The first accounts of predators being used as an insect management tool date back as early as 900 a.d. when Chinese citrus growers placed ants (Oeco-phylla smaragdina F.) on trees to protect them from other insects (McCook, 1882 Sweetman, 1958 Doutt, 1964 DeBach, 1974 Coulson et al., 1982). The Chinese also aided intertree...

Importation Biological Control

From 1890 through 1960, approximately 2300 species of parasitoids and predators were introduced in approximately 600 different situations worldwide for suppression of arthropod pests (Hall et al., 1980). The overall level of establishment of these natural enemies was calculated to be 34 , with complete suppression of target pests occurring in 16 of situations, and some level of pest suppression achieved in an additional 42 of situations (Hall and Ehler, 1979 Hall et al., 1980). These rates have...

Pyrethrum and the Pyrethrins

Pyrethrum is a powder produced by grinding the dried flowers of the pyrethrum daisy, Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium, and a related species, C. coccineum. Crude pyrethrum powders were first used introduced to Europe around 1800, and they were in use worldwide by around 1850 (Casida 1973 Matsumura 1985 Casida and Quistad 1995). Pyrethrum's insecticidal activity is provided by six constituent esters known as pyrethrins. They are pyrethrin I, the pyrethrolone ester of chrysanthemic acid pyrethrin...

Sex Pheromones

Long-range sex pheromones are released by either one mainly the females or both genders for the purpose of mate attraction. The sex pheromone of an insect usually consists of a blend of different components, although there are exceptions to this. These components are volatile, specific to one species or a small number of related species, and are very potent over considerable distances. This specificity allows a targeted application to manage one specific insect, with minimal influence on the...