Biopsychosocial Approach To Hiv And Aids And Aidsism

In the summer of 1981, I responded to my first psychiatric consultation request for a 29-year-old man with AIDS. There was a tray of food on the floor outside his room. When I knocked on his door, I received a response and entered his room. I discovered that the floor of the room was very sticky and my shoes stuck to table 1.1. Early Literature of AIDS Psychiatry* Year Issues Addressed, Comments 1983 Psychosocial impact of AIDS ostracism, the ''sheet sign,'' and the need for psychiatric...

Cocaine and Other Stimulants

Cocaine is an alkaloid extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush. The hydrochloride salt is water soluble and can be administered orally, intravenously, or intranasally. The intravenous route of administration has an onset of action of 10-60 seconds, with a peak effect achieved in minutes and duration of effect that lasts up to 1 hour. Administration of the drug by the intranasal route has an onset of action of up to 5 minutes, with a peak effect achieved in approximately 20...

As Sources Of Distress

Other factors causing distress are the multiple complications resulting from immunological suppression, including visual loss, neurological illness, and fears of progressive health decline and changes in one's ability to care for one's self independently. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinopathy is one of the most distressing complications of HIV disease, as it results in vision loss with accompanying social isolation, loss of independence, and loss of function. The advent of HAART therapy has altered...

Comprehensive Hiv Services Lead To Improved Outcomes For Patients And Providers

We envision the ideal HIV treatment for individuals with chronic mental illness as a comprehensive care center that provides treatment for HIV, other medical conditions, psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and psychosocial problems in one location. Initially, our clinic performed psychiatric evaluations on site and referred patients to outside psychiatric care. In the first year of referrals, we referred 94 patients, of whom 89 agreed to be referred. Upon follow-up we learned that none of...

Conclusion

AIDSism, stigma, discrimination, and fear, in conjunction with denial, omnipotence, and lack of awareness, complicate and perpetuate the HIV pandemic. The creation of supportive, nurturing, nonjudgmental health care environments can help combat AIDSism and provide comprehensive and compassionate care. AIDS psychiatrists and other mental health professionals need to be integrated closely into clinical, academic, and research aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. In order for persons with HIV...

Personality Disorder In Hiv Atrisk And Hivpositive Individuals

When traits found in certain individuals exceed the levels found in most of society and are sufficiently rigid and maladaptive to cause subjective distress or functional impairment, a personality disorder is usually diagnosed Rutter, 1987 Paris, 1996 . Personality disorders represent extremes of normal personality characteristics and are disabling conditions in environments where the trait is maladaptive. Defining personality extremes into categories and specific entities rather than traits...

Epidemiology

The epidemiology of suicide and HIV infection is complex. Prevalence estimates ofsuicidal behavior and completed suicides vary depending on the population studied. In addition, suicides of persons with AIDS may be underreported in certain parts of the world and acts of deliberate self-harm are often recorded as accidental overdoses or accidental deaths Carvajal et al., 1995 Semela et al., 2000 . Inadequate reporting is particularly relevant when completed suicides among intravenous drug users,...

Adjunctive Therapies For Neurodegenerative Disorders

Many diverse mechanisms, factors, and pathways are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, thus several different therapeutic methods have been developed to target a specific factor or a whole intricate pathway with the intent of ameliorating, preventing, or reversing neuronal cell damage. Inflammation and oxidative stress form a commonality between many neurode-generative diseases therefore most therapeutic modalities currently under investigation target MP activation to decrease the...