Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
Fig. 2-22. (A) The proximal femur as viewed from the front. The lesser trochanter is behind the shaft of the femur. (B) The proximal femur as viewed from behind. The lesser trochanter is clearly seen to be a posterior structure. (Adapted from McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT, Pegington J, and Abrahams PH. 1993 Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, p. 267-268. By permission of the publisher Mosby.) Fig. 2-22. (A) The proximal femur as viewed from the front. The lesser trochanter is behind the shaft of the femur. (B) The proximal femur as viewed from behind. The lesser trochanter is clearly seen to be a posterior structure. (Adapted from McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT, Pegington J, and Abrahams PH. 1993 Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, p. 267-268. By permission of the publisher Mosby.)
The dorsal surface of the hand. The numbering on the index finger would apply to the long, ring, and small fingers as well. 1, 2 and 3 are the distal, mid- and proximal phalanges, 4 indicates the metacarpal. R and U indicate the radius and ulna, respectively. (Adapted from McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT, Pegington J, and Abrahams PH. 1993 Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, p. 112. By permission of the publisher Mosby.) Fig. 2-34. A lateral view of the bones of the left foot. The T indicates the talus. The C indicates the calcaneus. (Adapted from McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT, Pegington J, and Abrahams PH. 1993 Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, p. 284. By permission of the publisher Mosby.)
The majority of medical images capture human anatomy that is 3D in structure. Three-dimensional medical images can be used for nondestructive inspection of the body and its component regions in vivo and in vitro, supporting execution and monitoring of interventions and providing quantitative measurements to determine whether an abnormality is present by comparison with normal controls in diagnosis and treatment planning 1, 3, 160 . However, feature extraction and retrieval of 3D medical images in most of the existing CBMIR systems are still performed based on 2D slices simply following the way of con-versional image retrieval in the 2D domain and departing from their originally obtained 3D form. It is believed that more accurate CBMIR, with more discriminating power, can be achieved if we can take full advantage of the information available in the 3D spatial domain by performing retrieval of these medical images based on their 3D volumetric features 161 .
Spatial relationships are an important piece of medical knowledge, since a physician's mental model of the patient includes understanding not only the shape, size, and boundaries of organs or lesions, but also his or her spatial extents in relation to adjacent structures in the human body. Medicine thus critically relies on knowing where body structures are located and their locations relative to other structures 173,174 . Given that abnormalities are defined as gross deviations from anatomical models, the spatial relationships of body structures are often critical to the diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanics of human disease. For example, spatial content in terms of relationships in surgical or radiation therapy of brain tumors is very decisive, because the location and related adjacent structures of a tumor have profound implications on a therapeutic decision 175 . Low-level features cannot always capture or describe these complex scenarios. Various spatial relationships have...
The CBMIR techniques introduced in this chapter so far are designed mainly for anatomical images that capture human anatomy at different levels and provide primarily structural information. Unlike those anatomical images, functional molecular images such as PET and SPECT allow the in vivo study of physiological and biochemical processes, providing functional information previously not available. This is what most distinguishes medical images from general images 86, 210, 211 . Physiological function can be estimated at the molecular level by observing the behavior of a small quantity of an administered substance tagged with radioactive atoms. Images are formed by the external detection of gamma rays emitted from the patient when the radioactive atoms decay. Glucose metabolism, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in the brain and heart can be measured with compounds labeled with carbon (nC), fluorine (18F), nitrogen (13N), and oxygen (15O), which are the major elemental constituents of...
In a lumped parameter model (Fig. 6.1), the highly complex structure of the coronary circulation is reduced to only a few compartments, each of which typically represents an entire class of vessels, such as arteries, capillaries or veins, without any possibility to further differentiate spatially within the compartment (e.g., 1-3). Anatomical models comprising a few dozen segments are based on morphometric parameters, such as lengths and radii of vessel segments. In this approach, the real branching geometry is implemented to specifically represent a certain
The smaller the blood vessel diameter, the less tension is required to maintain a given pressure within the vessel 1 . Applied to human anatomy, the degree of wall tension necessary to maintain perfusion pressure in the aorta would be approximately 10 000 times that necessary to maintain pressure within a capillary bed.
Although no experimental study can ever completely mimic a clinical situation, we believe that our model of acute coronary occlusion in the pig with subsequent reperfusion closely simulates the events that occur following a failed PTCA leading to CABG surgery. The coronary anatomy of the pig has less collateral flow than in dogs and sheep and more closely mimics human anatomy. Infarct size following a coronary occlusion in the pig is greater than in the dog. Hence, interventions which significantly reduce infarct size in the pig will undoubtedly have an important role in clinical practice. In our studies, the occlusion of the second and third diagonal vessels just distal to the takeoff of the LAD has consistently resulted in an area of risk of approximately 10-11 . While this may seem like a relatively small area, one must remember that in patients with triple vessel disease, the presence of collateral flow probably limits the actual amount of ventricular tissue which is at risk for...
Nevertheless, we still need to gain a better understanding of how they intervene in human physiology, a topic we will address below under the scope of moving to a protein's biological activity for targeting. Moreover, the question remained how we could apply this approach to assemble a complete collection of the targetable proteins from the genome, namely the secreted or transmembrane proteins as well as the decoy proteins - the so-called secreted proteome or secretome .
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the study of human physiology and pathology, and the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases. It is a system that consists of the clinical and theoretical investigation of the physiology and pathology of organs and functions. Current TCM practice is based on the cosmologic principles of Chinese philosophy, including holism, differentiation, yin yang, and the five elements. Herbal medicine, acupuncture, and moxibustion are the treatment methods employed in TCM, in order of frequency. TCM has a more than 2,500-year history consisting of the development of major theories and clinical investigations that have been carried out by generations of practitioners and investigators. The theoretical basis for TCM is beyond the scope of this chapter. A detailed discussion may be found in the work of Bensky, et al. (1-3).
Er than miniaturizing assays to increase throughput and reduce costs, we have transformed more and more complex biology to 96-well formats. For example, in our field of multiple sclerosis, we have pioneered a way to study remyelination of neurons in 96-well assays - a technology involving several cell types, a 21-day incubation period, and complex image analysis. It was this technology that led to the identification of several new proteins involved in neuronal repair - of which osteopontin is the forerunner (Fig. 17.5). In the immunology field we were the first to link the FACS cell sorter to our robotics system - and now routinely examine the cytokine production profile of cells (Besson et al. 2003). Whenever possible, we have used human cell or cell-based assays that reflect as closely as possible the mechanism of human physiology and pathology 'in vitro'. Out of our collection of 2,000 proteins and using approximately 10 assays, a large quantity of data points need to be collected.
Currently several groups are performing human IOS imaging of functional architecture and drawing conclusions about human physiology. However, little is known about the IOS response in humans at different wavelengths. We are currently investigating the IOS characteristics following a reproducible, focal cortical stimulus recorded at multiple wavelengths in the human. A two-contact ECoG strip is placed on the cortex underneath a 5 X 5-cm glass footplate. The operating room is darkened, and the cortex illuminated with a ring illuminator at 546 10 nm to record the surface blood vessel pattern and then at 546 10, 605 10, and 700 10 nm for IOS imaging. The optical reflectance signal is recorded a 10-bit camera (Imager 3001, Optical Imaging Inc., Germantown, NY) and digitized onto a PC at 33 frames per second, and integrated to variable frame rates from 10-2 frames s. Constant current stimulation (Ojemann Cortical Stimulator, Radionics) was applied (3 s, 60 Hz, biphasic square waves of 0.5...
The scale at the bottom of the figure indicates ulnar length. The numbers reflect the percentage of ulnar length at which commonly measured sites are centered on either bone. The arrow between the two bones indicates the 8-mm separation point. R identifies the radius. U identifies the ulna. (Adapted from McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT, Pegington J, and Abrahams PH. 1993 Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, p. 110. By permission of the publisher Mosby.) Fig. 2-26. The forearm. The scale at the bottom of the figure indicates ulnar length. The numbers reflect the percentage of ulnar length at which commonly measured sites are centered on either bone. The arrow between the two bones indicates the 8-mm separation point. R identifies the radius. U identifies the ulna. (Adapted from McMinn RMH, Hutchings RT, Pegington J, and Abrahams PH. 1993 Colour Atlas of Human Anatomy, 3rd edition, p. 110. By permission of the publisher Mosby.)
What are the necessary components of a complete neuronal level anatomical model of a brain region that can be used to simulate network connectivity and (with adequate computational power and parallel processing 57, 88 ) electrophysiological activity A first step could be the deployment of a very large number of detailed neuronal morphologies throughout virtual space representing tissue regions and their connectivity with intrinsic and extrinsic axonal pathways. Recently, a pilot study of this approach has been attempted for the hippocampus (43). However, for the model to be accurate, it Fig. 3. A system level anatomical model of the rat dentate gyrus. The granular layer surface is reconstructed in 3D from experimental atlas sections. One million granule cells (20,000 replicas of 50 reconstructed neurons) are stochastically distributed within the layer, with primary axis oriented perpendicular to the surface. (A) A saggital view of the whole dentate gyrus, from the medial plane. Only...
The identity of BMSCs in vivo remains unclear. Do pluripotent stem cells continue to populate the human marrow throughout life If so, what is their role in normal human physiology This continues to be debated, and it has yet to be conclusively demonstrated that MSC and MAPC multipotency and pluripotency do not result from manipulation in culture, resulting in artifac-tual plasticity. Although it is tempting to believe biological organisms retain a primitive population of stem cells with remarkable regenerative capacity, would it matter to the patient with debilitating stroke whether their treatment
Differences in the ultrasonic reflection and transmission coefficient between water and fat tissue enables us to visualise fat layer accumulation in the subcutaneous regions. Even though the imaging ability of the method can be limited by human anatomy and the depth of observed regions, US measurement has made its way to broad clinical applicability. Measurement schemes for the assessment of visceral fat volumes have been introduced (Armellini et al. 1990 Abe et al. 1995) and validated against measurements by computed tomography (Ribeiro-Filho et al. 2003 Hirooka et al. 2005). Using US, the distances between anatomical landmarks in the subcutaneous area and abdominal cavity (Hirooka et al. 2005) or the lower back region (Ribeiro-Filho et al. 2003) are measured, and the volume of intra-abdominal fat is calculated by empirical model equations (Figure 13.1).
In recent years, considerable effort has been taken in the research of osteoporosis. Investigators have been focusing on developing quantitative techniques to assess a human skeleton. The trabecular bone has a high surface-to-volume ratio, and a presumed turnover rate approximately eight times higher than that of the cortical bone. Therefore, the trabecular bone is highly sensitive to various stimuli. In keeping with these data, the clinical and epidemiological observations show that osteoporotic fractures initially occur in areas composed of predominantly trabecular bone, making it a prime site for detecting early bone loss and monitoring response to therapeutic interventions.
The overall architecture of CIIM systems is shown in Figure 18.2. Broadly, these systems consist of the following components (1) computational components that perform a wide variety of image processing, surgical planning, monitoring, and similar tasks (2) databases of patient-specific information, as well as more generic knowledge bases about human anatomy and physiology, common treatment plans, outcome data, etc. and (3) devices such as imagers, robots, and human-machine interfaces that relate the virtual reality of computer representations to the actual reality of the patient, interven-tional room, and clinician.
Eppig et al describe the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) and its companion system, the mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD). One of the key challenges for the next generation of databases is to begin to span the levels of organization between genotype and phenotype, where the processes of development and physiology reside. Baldock et al describe an anatomical atlas of the mouse suitable for representing spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression the Edinburgh (Baldock et al) and Jackson Laboratory (Eppig et al) projects are collaborating to link the genetic and spatial databases together. The plant kingdom, which has recently experienced a rapid acceleration of genomic scrutiny in both the private and public sectors, is represented in articles on MaizeDB by Polacco and Coe and on the USDA's Agricultural Genome Information System by Beckstrom-Sternberg and Jamison. Gelbart et al describe the rich integration of genomic and phenotypic data on Drosophila in Flybase. Mary Berlyn describes the...
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.