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AAdapted from Kimberlin et al., 2001a Whitley et al., 1980b Hutto et al., 1987. bPercent of HSV-infected infants who died by 1 year of age. Percent of the surviving infants with mild, moderate or severe ophthalmologic or neurodevelopmental sequelae at 1 year of age (mild ocular sequelae, speech or mild motor delay moderate hemiparesis, epilepsy, < 3-month developmental delay severe microcephaly, spastic quadriplegia, blindness chorioretinitis, > 3-month developmental delay (see Kimberlin,...

Definition frequency and pathogenesis

After reviewing the literature, the CVS has not been so rarely reported as formerly assumed. This syndrome has been variously referred to as fetal varicella syndrome'', ''congenital varicella-zoster syndrome'', varicella embryo-fetopathy'', varicella embryopathy and varicella fetopathy''. Finally, the term fetal varicella-zoster syndrome has been proposed in view of the pathogenesis of this condition as well as for the clear differentiation from ''congenital varicella'' occasionally used for...

Varicella during the perinatal period

After maternal chickenpox during the last weeks of gestation longer than 5 days before the delivery, neonatal varicella may occur, however, the newborns do usually not develop any complications. For this reason, passive immunization or antiviral treatment are mostly not necessary in these cases. If maternal chickenpox is observed between 4 (-5) days before and 2 days after delivery, there is a risk of severe varicella for the neonate within the first 12 days of life. To reduce the mortality...

Natural history of HCV infection

Clinically, acute hepatitis C is similar to other forms of acute viral hepatitis. The incubation period, from infection to the onset of the symptoms, ranges from 7 to 20 weeks Alter et al., 1989 . The first marker of HCV infection that appears in serum is HCV-RNA that can be detected within 1-2 weeks after exposure Hino et al., 1994 . Later on, serum aminotransferase levels increase followed by appearance of antibodies to HCV anti-HCV . In general, the first anti-HCV antibodies detected are of...