Flush Out Toxic Heavy Metals
If the packaging is not compatible with a given type of food then there can be a strong interaction leading to an accelerated release of chemical substances. Examples are the interaction of fats and oils with certain plastics that leads to swelling of the plastic and leaching of substances from that plastic. Leaching, formally known as Class III migration, occurs because the diffusivity of the plastic increases with any swelling. This means that with swelling, the plastic starts to behave more like a fluid. An even more extreme example of an undesirable interaction between packaging and food is the corrosion of uncoated metal surfaces leading to high metal release into certain acidic foods, or the leaching of heavy metals from ceramic glazes. It is important to avoid such
Although many different cells and tissues can be injured by toxicants, there are not many different fundamental mechanisms by which injury can occur. Each of these categories can be very broad, however. Mechanisms of injury include ligand binding by heavy metals, covalent binding, oxidative stress by 1.8.1 Ligand Binding by Heavy Metals The antidotes for heavy metals are called chelating agents, a picturesque term invoking an image of lobster claws (chelae) grabbing hold of the metal. Such drugs are rich sources of the ligands to which metals readily bind, and these drugs are able to compete effectively for the metal against the endogenous tissue ligands.
Traditionally, methacrylate based photopolymerizable resins have been utilized since their introduction by R. F. Bowen 16,17 . Typically bis-Phenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) in combination with different fractions of Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are photo-polymerized with visible light in the presence of suitable photo-initiators to create dental fillings. Such polymer based fillings possess two significant advantages in comparison to traditional amalgams. Firstly, they eliminate entirely the utilization of toxic heavy metals such as mercury in a biomedical application. Secondly, the optical characteristics of polymer systems enhance their aesthetic characteristics and these restorations essentially blend in with the surrounding dental structure. In comparison the amalgams are characterized by a typically metallic luster and thus, they do not compare well with the polymer systems. However, currently prevalent polymer-based dental restorations suffer significant...
Information as well as the intensity and frequency information. The phase can be determined using the method of multiple isomorphous replacement where heavy metals or groups containing heavy element are incorporated into the diffracting crystals. The final coordinates of biomacromolecules are then deduced using knowledge about the primary structure and are refined by processes that include comparisons of calculated and observed diffraction patterns. Three-dimensional structures of proteins and their complexes (Blundell and Johnson, 1976), nucleic acids and viruses have been determined by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction (Roussseau, 1998). Protein Data Bank (http www.rcsb.org pdb) is the international publicly available repository for the 3D structures of biomacromolecules. The 3D structures of nucleic acids can be retrieved from Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) at http ndbserver.rutgers.edu. The SWEET2 server of Glycosciences provides tools for modeling the 3D structures of...
BW Potential biological warfare agent and CW potential chemical warfare agent. Acute gastroenteritis Norwalk-like virus (vom-itoxin), Staphylococcus aureus toxinbw, Bacillus cereus toxin, all heavy metals (Hg, As). Noninflammatory diarrhea Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Vibrio cholerae, astroviruses, cali-civiruses (genus Norovirus), rotaviruses, adeno-viruses, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis.
Pollution and other environmental hazards. Cysteine and glutathione help protect against toxins and pollutants, including drugs, bacterial toxins, peroxidized fats, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.), air pollutants, automobile exhaust fumes, food additives, and pesticides.7 Cysteine helps protect the lungs of smokers from the toxic effects of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two of the many toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke. Cysteine can be important in cancer chemotherapy, reducing toxicity from agents such as cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin.
The health of the booming aquaculture industry itself is vitally dependent on the quality of the environment. About 80 percent of marine pollution originates on land, with the outpouring of sewage, pesticides, heavy metals, radioactive wastes, oil, sediments, and other materials into streams and rivers. Because most of the fish we eat are predators near the top of food chains, they tend to concentrate many of these pollutants in their bodies, creating a health risk for human consumers. Shellfish, too, concentrate toxins in the surrounding water by their method of filter feeding.
Many other agents can produce dementia as a result of their persisting effects. Exposure to such heavy metals as mercury and bromide, chronic contact with various insecticides, and use of various classes of drugs of abuse may produce dementia. In particular, the abuse of organic solvents (inhalants) has been associated with neurological changes (see Chapter 20). The inhalants are generally classified as anesthetics (halothane, chloroform, ether, nitrous oxide), solvents (gasoline, paint thinner, antifreeze, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride), aerosols (insecticides, deodorants, hair sprays), and nitrites (amyl nitrite). The solvent category is particularly toxic to the brain. In addition, acute anoxia may result from the common practice of inhaling a substance with a plastic bag around the head. Such neurological findings as peripheral neuropathy, paresis, paresthesias, areflexia, seizures, signs of cerebellar damage, and Babinski's sign are common. Although the cerebellum is often...
Contamination from plumbing can be minimized by installing new plumbing if the old pipes are corroded or contain lead or galvanized coatings rich in cadmium. Soft water leaches more heavy metals from pipes than hard water. Another benefit of hard water is that it is richer in calcium and magnesium. High-quality water filters can minimize intake from drinking water. Water for cooking and drinking should not be taken from the hot-water tap if the plumbing is old (hot water leaches more metals from pipes). Water pipes should be flushed out before drawing water for drinking, especially in the morning or after periods of non-use when water has stood in them.
The issue of safety is extremely important with regard to Ayurvedic herbs and medicines (7). Lead poisoning and other heavy metal toxicity can occur with the use of some Ayurvedic therapies (e.g., herbal tonics) (8,9). Also, although the author advocates strong cleansing regimens to purify the body, the editors only recommend the consideration of Ayurvedic medications after consultation with a neurologist Cleansing with emetics or purgatives can reduce antiepileptic drug levels and cause more frequent, severe, or prolonged seizures. Their use should only be undertaken with the knowledge of the doctor prescribing antiepileptic drugs. We strongly recommend against initial treatment with Ayurvedic medications (as opposed to standard antiepileptic drugs, which have proven efficacy). 9. Parab S, Kulkarni R, Thatte U. Heavy metals in herbal medicines. Indian J Gastroenterol 2003 22(3) 111-112.
Brooks, R.R. and Robinson, B.H., The potential use of hyperaccumulators and other plants for phytomining, in Plants That Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals, Brooks, R.R., Ed., CAB International, Wallingford, U.K., 1998, pp. 327-356. Dushenkov, D.A., Kumar, N.P.B.A., Motto, H., and Raskin, I., Rhizofiltration the use of plants to remove heavy metals from aqueous stream, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 1239-1245, 1995. Jasiewicz, C. and Antonkiewicz, J., Heavy metal extraction by Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) from soils contaminated with heavy metals, Pol. Chemia i Inzynieria Ekologiczna, 9, 379-386, 2002.
In CZE, small amounts of proteins (100 mM) (14,15). If the protein concentration is too high, they can bind to the capillaries, modifying the surface charge and affect the separation of subsequent samples. Proteins can be removed before injecting the sample by precipitation with acids, heavy metal ions, or alcohols. However, acids and heavy metals ions add salt to the sample that can degrade the separation.
Ethambutol and other antitubercular drugs, cytostatic agents, heavy metals, hexachlorophene, and methanol can all cause a toxic optic neuropathy (also see Chap. 17). The first priority is to identify the offending agent and then to block further exposure. Specific measures that follow are determined by the nature of the toxin. The most common syndrome of toxic damage to the optic nerve chiasm is that of tobacco-alcohol amblyopia. It is thought that the toxin in question is cyanide, which is present in trace quantities in tobacco smoke. Interventional therapy with oral multivitamins (e.g., vitamin B complex) and intramuscular injections of hydroxycobalamine (the decyanated form of vitamin B12) can reverse the visual loss in the early stages of the disease. These vitamins are thought to chelate trace levels of cyanide and detoxify the affected tissues. Some individuals may be more at risk than others are, based on the composition of their mitochondrial DNA and variations in the...
The liver has two main functions in the body 12 . The first is maintenance of internal nutritional homeostasis through facilitation of lipid absorption and intermediary metabolism. As described later, the large metabolic capacity of the liver renders it vulnerable to heavy metals through binding of the metals to and inactivation of electrophilic ligands. For the same reasons as described for the liver, heavy metals and compounds converted to active metabolites can also be toxic to the kidney, which is very active metabolically 13,14 . With certain quinones, reduced glutathione can enhance toxicity, rather than being protective 15 .
To date, only one biochemical marker of ischemia has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the risk stratification of patients with suspected ACS. Nascent human serum albumin has multiple functions, including the ability to bind heavy metals at the N-terminal portion of the protein. The observations were made that not all albumin molecules have this metal-binding capability (36) and that in the presence of myocardial ischemia albumin may become altered hence, this type of albumin was named ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (Ischemia Technologies, Denver, CO) (37). The relative proportion oflMA increases significantly following the onset of myocardial ischemia and persists for approx 6-8 h (38,39). The initial hypothesis linked this change to ROS-induced damage to the N-terminus of albumin, which inactivated the heavy metal-binding site (Fig. 5). IMA is discussed in further detail in Chapter 13. Fig. 5. Ischemic modification to albumin free-radical damage to N-terminus....
Investigations into the possible harmful effects of toxins encountered in the environment and in occupational medicine should be based on carefully prepared questionnaires for each of the individuals involved in the study. These should cover life style, drug intake and confounding factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption, and they should also seek to establish the level and length of exposure. The most valuable studies have been carried out on defined populations. A transeuropean study 5 investigated a wide range of established and novel biomarkers in workers exposed to heavy metals or solvents. A study of Italian dry-cleaners exposed to perchloro-ethylene demonstrated that it was possible to discriminate between the responses of different markers and to distinguish between glomerular and tubular effects - and, as a result, it was possible to establish the presence of glomerular dysfunction. Similar studies with workers exposed to lead, cadmium or mercury established that...
Fauris et al. (1998) made a systematic survey on six paper and 15 board samples from different European countries using the RNA-synthesis inhibition test for the toxicity screening. The samples represented both recycled (ten samples) and virgin fibres, among the latter both chemical and mechanical pulps were represented. The recycled fibres represented the four categories according to the CEN 1994 standard (the category A represents raw materials consisting of unprinted or uncoloured paper, the categories B, C and D represent increasing use of printed or coloured raw materials, D being made totally from mixed paper and board of variable origin). In the analysis of water-soluble matter and in the preparation of water extracts CEN standard procedures were used. The substances that were analysed from the actual samples included total and organic chlorine, pentachlorophenol, total sulphur and nitrogen, formaldehyde, glyoxal, heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr, bacterial endotoxins and aflatoxin....
Paper and board are natural materials, which have a remarkably long history of safe use. Consequently there has been no great pressure to apply specific regulatory measures to ensure their harmlessness in various applications, although in some countries (i.e. France, Italy and Germany) the legislation and the guidelines directed to the industry are rather detailed, especially in the case of recycled fibres (Escabasse and Ottenio, 2002). Typically the existing regulations define the chemicals that are allowed in the manufacture of paper and board and set limits for various contaminants (heavy metals, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) in the products. A specific concern of the use of recycled fibre is also reflected in the Council of Europe policy statement on paper and board for food contact (see below).
On a less frequent basis, and as part of good manufacturing practice, samples of water should also be analysed more thoroughly for a wider range of components, including the heavy metals (e.g. arsenic, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known to be carcinogens. The levels of fluoride and nitrate ions in the incoming water should also be checked periodically. The heavy metals and PAH analyses are both very specialised and are better left to specialist laboratories. However, analysis for fluoride and nitrate levels can readily be performed using ion exchange chromatography linked with conductivity detection. A typical example of this is given in Dionex application note 25 (Anon, n.d.a) and a chromatogram of a standard for this type of separation is given in Figure 10.1.
Inulin can be modified to compounds that display good heavy metal complexing properties similar to ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) but with better biodegradation properties (Bogaert et al., 1998). Inulin is first oxidized using sodium periodate to the dialdehyde, and then reduced to a polyol using Pt C and hydrogen. The polyol can then be modified with carbon disulfide to form xanthate or with SO3-pyridine to obtain an inulin sulfate. Alternatively, the dialdehyde can be aminated with diaminoethane and sodium cyanoborohydride and the product reacted with monochloroacetic acid sodium salt to form carboxymethylamino inulin. Each of these compounds can be used to precipitate heavy metals.
In chelation therapy, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is given through an intravenous infusion. EDTA binds strongly to (chelates) harmful metals, and the metal-EDTA complexes then are excreted in the urine. Vitamin and mineral supplements are also frequently given. A course of treatment may involve 20 to 30 infusions that are given over the course of a few months. This type of therapy is effective for known situations of heavy-metal toxicity, such as lead poisoning.
Hormones Estrogens (diethyl stilbesterol), anabolic steroids. Plastics Vinyl chloride monomer, aryl acrylates. Heavy metals Arsenic, chromium, nickel. Ionizing radiation Radon, x-rays. Nonionizing radiation Ultraviolet light. Miscellaneous drugs Chloramphenicol, phenytoin. Industrial exposures Arsenic, asbestos, cadmium, chromium, nickel, silica.
Ceramic articles may pose a risk to the consumer through heavy metals used in the glazing and colouring. Substances of major concern in the past have been lead and cadmium. Community legislation (Directive 84 500 EEC7 amended by Directive 2005 31 EC8) therefore imposes limits for lead and cadmium leaching from ceramic articles into a 4 (v v) acetic acid solution. Rules for migration testing and performance criteria of the analytical method are set out in the legislation. For other heavy metals the general rules of Article 3 of the Framework Regulation applies. Some Member States have national restrictions for some of the other heavy metals and separate limits for migration from the mouth rim of cups and beakers (see national legislation).
In a study recently carried out in Hong Kong on disposable plastic containers for take-away meals15 the migration of styrene oligomers, heavy metals and the overall migration from plastic containers and, where present, their lids were determined into food simulants under different test conditions. Results showed that all the disposable plastic container samples met the safety standards for heavy metals and residual styrene monomers. Hence, with the proper use of disposable plastic containers, they would be unlikely to cause a food
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